Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)

Nathalie Smitz, Daniel Cornélis, Philippe Chardonnet, Alexandre Caron, Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky, Ferran Jori, Alice Mouton, Alice Latinne, Lise Marie Pigneur, Mario Melletti, Kimberly L. Kanapeckas, Jonathan Marescaux, Carlos Lopes Pereira, Johan Michaux

Résultats de recherche: Contribution à un journal/une revueArticle

6 Downloads (Pure)

Résumé

Background: African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases. In many areas, ungulate populations are now largely confined within a network of loosely connected protected areas. These metapopulations face gene flow restriction and run the risk of genetic diversity erosion. In this context, we assessed the "genetic health" of free ranging southern African Cape buffalo populations (S.c. caffer) and investigated the origins of their current genetic structure. The analyses were based on 264 samples from 6 southern African countries that were genotyped for 14 autosomal and 3 Y-chromosomal microsatellites. Results: The analyses differentiated three significant genetic clusters, hereafter referred to as Northern (N), Central (C) and Southern (S) clusters. The results suggest that splitting of the N and C clusters occurred around 6000 to 8400 years ago. Both N and C clusters displayed high genetic diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar) of 7.217, average genetic diversity over loci of 0.594, mean private alleles (Pa) of 11), low differentiation, and an absence of an inbreeding depression signal (mean FIS = 0.037). The third (S) cluster, a tiny population enclosed within a small isolated protected area, likely originated from a more recent isolation and experienced genetic drift (FIS = 0.062, mean Ar = 6.160, Pa = 2). This study also highlighted the impact of translocations between clusters on the genetic structure of several African buffalo populations. Lower differentiation estimates were observed between C and N sampling localities that experienced translocation over the last century. Conclusions: We showed that the current genetic structure of southern African Cape buffalo populations results from both ancient and recent processes. The splitting time of N and C clusters suggests that the current pattern results from human-induced factors and/or from the aridification process that occurred during the Holocene period. The more recent S cluster genetic drift probably results of processes that occurred over the last centuries (habitat fragmentation, diseases). Management practices of African buffalo populations should consider the micro-evolutionary changes highlighted in the present study.

langue originaleAnglais
Pages (de - à)203
journalBMC Evolutionary Biology
Volume14
Numéro de publication1
Les DOIs
étatPublié - 1 nov. 2014

Empreinte digitale

Syncerus caffer
genetic structure
genetic drift
translocation
protected area
allele
aridification
inbreeding depression
metapopulation
habitat fragmentation
ungulate
geographical distribution
genetic variation
gene flow
population size
cattle
management practice
wildlife
conservation areas
Holocene

Citer ceci

Smitz, Nathalie ; Cornélis, Daniel ; Chardonnet, Philippe ; Caron, Alexandre ; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel ; Jori, Ferran ; Mouton, Alice ; Latinne, Alice ; Pigneur, Lise Marie ; Melletti, Mario ; Kanapeckas, Kimberly L. ; Marescaux, Jonathan ; Pereira, Carlos Lopes ; Michaux, Johan. / Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). Dans: BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2014 ; Vol 14, Numéro 1. p. 203.
@article{4c046ee51fff463ca7dc03717719a9eb,
title = "Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)",
abstract = "Background: African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases. In many areas, ungulate populations are now largely confined within a network of loosely connected protected areas. These metapopulations face gene flow restriction and run the risk of genetic diversity erosion. In this context, we assessed the {"}genetic health{"} of free ranging southern African Cape buffalo populations (S.c. caffer) and investigated the origins of their current genetic structure. The analyses were based on 264 samples from 6 southern African countries that were genotyped for 14 autosomal and 3 Y-chromosomal microsatellites. Results: The analyses differentiated three significant genetic clusters, hereafter referred to as Northern (N), Central (C) and Southern (S) clusters. The results suggest that splitting of the N and C clusters occurred around 6000 to 8400 years ago. Both N and C clusters displayed high genetic diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar) of 7.217, average genetic diversity over loci of 0.594, mean private alleles (Pa) of 11), low differentiation, and an absence of an inbreeding depression signal (mean FIS = 0.037). The third (S) cluster, a tiny population enclosed within a small isolated protected area, likely originated from a more recent isolation and experienced genetic drift (FIS = 0.062, mean Ar = 6.160, Pa = 2). This study also highlighted the impact of translocations between clusters on the genetic structure of several African buffalo populations. Lower differentiation estimates were observed between C and N sampling localities that experienced translocation over the last century. Conclusions: We showed that the current genetic structure of southern African Cape buffalo populations results from both ancient and recent processes. The splitting time of N and C clusters suggests that the current pattern results from human-induced factors and/or from the aridification process that occurred during the Holocene period. The more recent S cluster genetic drift probably results of processes that occurred over the last centuries (habitat fragmentation, diseases). Management practices of African buffalo populations should consider the micro-evolutionary changes highlighted in the present study.",
keywords = "Conservation implications, Genetic structure, Population genetics, Southern Africa, Syncerus caffer caffer, Translocation",
author = "Nathalie Smitz and Daniel Corn{\'e}lis and Philippe Chardonnet and Alexandre Caron and {de Garine-Wichatitsky}, Michel and Ferran Jori and Alice Mouton and Alice Latinne and Pigneur, {Lise Marie} and Mario Melletti and Kanapeckas, {Kimberly L.} and Jonathan Marescaux and Pereira, {Carlos Lopes} and Johan Michaux",
year = "2014",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1186/s12862-014-0203-2",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
pages = "203",
journal = "BMC Evolutionary Biology",
issn = "1471-2148",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

Smitz, N, Cornélis, D, Chardonnet, P, Caron, A, de Garine-Wichatitsky, M, Jori, F, Mouton, A, Latinne, A, Pigneur, LM, Melletti, M, Kanapeckas, KL, Marescaux, J, Pereira, CL & Michaux, J 2014, 'Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)', BMC Evolutionary Biology, VOL. 14, Numéro 1, p. 203. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-014-0203-2

Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). / Smitz, Nathalie; Cornélis, Daniel; Chardonnet, Philippe; Caron, Alexandre; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Jori, Ferran; Mouton, Alice; Latinne, Alice; Pigneur, Lise Marie; Melletti, Mario; Kanapeckas, Kimberly L.; Marescaux, Jonathan; Pereira, Carlos Lopes; Michaux, Johan.

Dans: BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol 14, Numéro 1, 01.11.2014, p. 203.

Résultats de recherche: Contribution à un journal/une revueArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)

AU - Smitz, Nathalie

AU - Cornélis, Daniel

AU - Chardonnet, Philippe

AU - Caron, Alexandre

AU - de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel

AU - Jori, Ferran

AU - Mouton, Alice

AU - Latinne, Alice

AU - Pigneur, Lise Marie

AU - Melletti, Mario

AU - Kanapeckas, Kimberly L.

AU - Marescaux, Jonathan

AU - Pereira, Carlos Lopes

AU - Michaux, Johan

PY - 2014/11/1

Y1 - 2014/11/1

N2 - Background: African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases. In many areas, ungulate populations are now largely confined within a network of loosely connected protected areas. These metapopulations face gene flow restriction and run the risk of genetic diversity erosion. In this context, we assessed the "genetic health" of free ranging southern African Cape buffalo populations (S.c. caffer) and investigated the origins of their current genetic structure. The analyses were based on 264 samples from 6 southern African countries that were genotyped for 14 autosomal and 3 Y-chromosomal microsatellites. Results: The analyses differentiated three significant genetic clusters, hereafter referred to as Northern (N), Central (C) and Southern (S) clusters. The results suggest that splitting of the N and C clusters occurred around 6000 to 8400 years ago. Both N and C clusters displayed high genetic diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar) of 7.217, average genetic diversity over loci of 0.594, mean private alleles (Pa) of 11), low differentiation, and an absence of an inbreeding depression signal (mean FIS = 0.037). The third (S) cluster, a tiny population enclosed within a small isolated protected area, likely originated from a more recent isolation and experienced genetic drift (FIS = 0.062, mean Ar = 6.160, Pa = 2). This study also highlighted the impact of translocations between clusters on the genetic structure of several African buffalo populations. Lower differentiation estimates were observed between C and N sampling localities that experienced translocation over the last century. Conclusions: We showed that the current genetic structure of southern African Cape buffalo populations results from both ancient and recent processes. The splitting time of N and C clusters suggests that the current pattern results from human-induced factors and/or from the aridification process that occurred during the Holocene period. The more recent S cluster genetic drift probably results of processes that occurred over the last centuries (habitat fragmentation, diseases). Management practices of African buffalo populations should consider the micro-evolutionary changes highlighted in the present study.

AB - Background: African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases. In many areas, ungulate populations are now largely confined within a network of loosely connected protected areas. These metapopulations face gene flow restriction and run the risk of genetic diversity erosion. In this context, we assessed the "genetic health" of free ranging southern African Cape buffalo populations (S.c. caffer) and investigated the origins of their current genetic structure. The analyses were based on 264 samples from 6 southern African countries that were genotyped for 14 autosomal and 3 Y-chromosomal microsatellites. Results: The analyses differentiated three significant genetic clusters, hereafter referred to as Northern (N), Central (C) and Southern (S) clusters. The results suggest that splitting of the N and C clusters occurred around 6000 to 8400 years ago. Both N and C clusters displayed high genetic diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar) of 7.217, average genetic diversity over loci of 0.594, mean private alleles (Pa) of 11), low differentiation, and an absence of an inbreeding depression signal (mean FIS = 0.037). The third (S) cluster, a tiny population enclosed within a small isolated protected area, likely originated from a more recent isolation and experienced genetic drift (FIS = 0.062, mean Ar = 6.160, Pa = 2). This study also highlighted the impact of translocations between clusters on the genetic structure of several African buffalo populations. Lower differentiation estimates were observed between C and N sampling localities that experienced translocation over the last century. Conclusions: We showed that the current genetic structure of southern African Cape buffalo populations results from both ancient and recent processes. The splitting time of N and C clusters suggests that the current pattern results from human-induced factors and/or from the aridification process that occurred during the Holocene period. The more recent S cluster genetic drift probably results of processes that occurred over the last centuries (habitat fragmentation, diseases). Management practices of African buffalo populations should consider the micro-evolutionary changes highlighted in the present study.

KW - Conservation implications

KW - Genetic structure

KW - Population genetics

KW - Southern Africa

KW - Syncerus caffer caffer

KW - Translocation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84920757084&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/s12862-014-0203-2

DO - 10.1186/s12862-014-0203-2

M3 - Article

C2 - 25367154

VL - 14

SP - 203

JO - BMC Evolutionary Biology

JF - BMC Evolutionary Biology

SN - 1471-2148

IS - 1

ER -

Smitz N, Cornélis D, Chardonnet P, Caron A, de Garine-Wichatitsky M, Jori F et al. Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2014 nov. 1;14(1):203. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-014-0203-2