Organometal halide (hybrid) perovskite solar cells have been fabricated following four different deposition procedures and investigated in order to find correlations between the solar cell characteristics/performance and their structure and composition as determined by combining depth-resolved imaging with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The interface quality is found to be strongly affected by the perovskite deposition procedure, and in particular from the environment where the conversion of the starting precursors into the final perovskite is performed (air, nitrogen, or vacuum). The conversion efficiency of the precursors into the hybrid perovskite layer is compared between the different solar cells by looking at the ToF-SIMS intensities of the characteristic molecular fragments from the perovskite and the precursor materials. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the STEM confirms the macroscopic ToF-SIMS findings and allows elemental mapping with nanometer resolution. Clear evidence for iodine diffusion has been observed and related to the fabrication procedure.
- perovskite solar cells
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Technological Platform Synthesis, Irradiation and Analysis of Materials
Facility/equipment: Technological Platform