Hybrid perovskites depth profiling with variable-size argon clusters and monatomic ions beams

Céline Noël, Sara Pescetelli, Antonio Agresti, Alexis Franquet, Valentina Spampinato, Alexandre Felten, Aldo di Carlo, Laurent Houssiau, Yan Busby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Ion beam depth profiling is increasingly used to investigate layers and interfaces in complex multilayered devices, including solar cells. This approach is particularly challenging on hybrid perovskite layers and perovskite solar cells because of the presence of organic/inorganic interfaces requiring the fine optimization of the sputtering beam conditions. The ion beam sputtering must ensure a viable sputtering rate on hard inorganic materials while limiting the chemical (fragmentation), compositional (preferential sputtering) or topographical (roughening and intermixing) modifications on soft organic layers. In this work, model (Cs x (MA 0.17 FA 0.83 ) 100-x Pb(I 0.83 Br 0.17 ) 3 /cTiO 2 /Glass) samples and full mesoscopic perovskite solar cells are profiled using low-energy (500 and 1000 eV) monatomic beams (Ar + and Cs + ) and variable-size argon clusters (Ar n + , 75 < n < 4000) with energy up to 20 keV. The ion beam conditions are optimized by systematically comparing the sputtering rates and the surface modifications associated with each sputtering beam. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and in-situ scanning probe microscopy are combined to characterize the interfaces and evidence sputtering-related artifacts. Within monatomic beams, 500 eV Cs + results in the most intense and stable ToF-SIMS molecular profiles, almost material-independent sputtering rates and sharp interfaces. Large argon clusters (n > 500) with insufficient energy (E < 10 keV) result in the preferential sputtering of organic molecules and are highly ineffective to sputter small metal clusters (Pb and Au), which tend to artificially accumulate during the depth profile. This is not the case for the optimized cluster ions having a few hundred argon atoms (300 < n < 500) and an energy-per-atom value of at least 20 eV. In these conditions, we obtain (i) the low fragmentation of organic molecules, (ii) convenient erosion rates on soft and hard layers (but still different), and (iii) constant molecular profiles in the perovskite layer, i.e., no accumulation of damages.

Original languageEnglish
Article number726
JournalMaterials
Volume12
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

Depth profiling
Argon
perovskites
Ion beams
Sputtering
sputtering
ion beams
argon
solar cells
Secondary ion mass spectrometry
Perovskite
secondary ion mass spectrometry
fragmentation
profiles
Scanning probe microscopy
Atoms
Molecules
inorganic materials
energy
metal clusters

Keywords

  • Argon GCIB
  • Depth profiling
  • Hybrid materials
  • Low-energy Cesium
  • Perovskite solar cells
  • ToF-SIMS
  • XPS

Cite this

Noël, Céline ; Pescetelli, Sara ; Agresti, Antonio ; Franquet, Alexis ; Spampinato, Valentina ; Felten, Alexandre ; di Carlo, Aldo ; Houssiau, Laurent ; Busby, Yan. / Hybrid perovskites depth profiling with variable-size argon clusters and monatomic ions beams. In: Materials. 2019 ; Vol. 12, No. 5.
@article{35a7b263195641efa2171c6657110e32,
title = "Hybrid perovskites depth profiling with variable-size argon clusters and monatomic ions beams",
abstract = "Ion beam depth profiling is increasingly used to investigate layers and interfaces in complex multilayered devices, including solar cells. This approach is particularly challenging on hybrid perovskite layers and perovskite solar cells because of the presence of organic/inorganic interfaces requiring the fine optimization of the sputtering beam conditions. The ion beam sputtering must ensure a viable sputtering rate on hard inorganic materials while limiting the chemical (fragmentation), compositional (preferential sputtering) or topographical (roughening and intermixing) modifications on soft organic layers. In this work, model (Cs x (MA 0.17 FA 0.83 ) 100-x Pb(I 0.83 Br 0.17 ) 3 /cTiO 2 /Glass) samples and full mesoscopic perovskite solar cells are profiled using low-energy (500 and 1000 eV) monatomic beams (Ar + and Cs + ) and variable-size argon clusters (Ar n + , 75 < n < 4000) with energy up to 20 keV. The ion beam conditions are optimized by systematically comparing the sputtering rates and the surface modifications associated with each sputtering beam. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and in-situ scanning probe microscopy are combined to characterize the interfaces and evidence sputtering-related artifacts. Within monatomic beams, 500 eV Cs + results in the most intense and stable ToF-SIMS molecular profiles, almost material-independent sputtering rates and sharp interfaces. Large argon clusters (n > 500) with insufficient energy (E < 10 keV) result in the preferential sputtering of organic molecules and are highly ineffective to sputter small metal clusters (Pb and Au), which tend to artificially accumulate during the depth profile. This is not the case for the optimized cluster ions having a few hundred argon atoms (300 < n < 500) and an energy-per-atom value of at least 20 eV. In these conditions, we obtain (i) the low fragmentation of organic molecules, (ii) convenient erosion rates on soft and hard layers (but still different), and (iii) constant molecular profiles in the perovskite layer, i.e., no accumulation of damages.",
keywords = "Argon GCIB, Depth profiling, Hybrid materials, Low-energy Cesium, Perovskite solar cells, ToF-SIMS, XPS",
author = "C{\'e}line No{\"e}l and Sara Pescetelli and Antonio Agresti and Alexis Franquet and Valentina Spampinato and Alexandre Felten and {di Carlo}, Aldo and Laurent Houssiau and Yan Busby",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/ma12050726",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "2D Materials",
issn = "2053-1583",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "5",

}

Hybrid perovskites depth profiling with variable-size argon clusters and monatomic ions beams. / Noël, Céline; Pescetelli, Sara; Agresti, Antonio; Franquet, Alexis; Spampinato, Valentina; Felten, Alexandre; di Carlo, Aldo; Houssiau, Laurent; Busby, Yan.

In: Materials, Vol. 12, No. 5, 726, 01.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hybrid perovskites depth profiling with variable-size argon clusters and monatomic ions beams

AU - Noël, Céline

AU - Pescetelli, Sara

AU - Agresti, Antonio

AU - Franquet, Alexis

AU - Spampinato, Valentina

AU - Felten, Alexandre

AU - di Carlo, Aldo

AU - Houssiau, Laurent

AU - Busby, Yan

PY - 2019/3/1

Y1 - 2019/3/1

N2 - Ion beam depth profiling is increasingly used to investigate layers and interfaces in complex multilayered devices, including solar cells. This approach is particularly challenging on hybrid perovskite layers and perovskite solar cells because of the presence of organic/inorganic interfaces requiring the fine optimization of the sputtering beam conditions. The ion beam sputtering must ensure a viable sputtering rate on hard inorganic materials while limiting the chemical (fragmentation), compositional (preferential sputtering) or topographical (roughening and intermixing) modifications on soft organic layers. In this work, model (Cs x (MA 0.17 FA 0.83 ) 100-x Pb(I 0.83 Br 0.17 ) 3 /cTiO 2 /Glass) samples and full mesoscopic perovskite solar cells are profiled using low-energy (500 and 1000 eV) monatomic beams (Ar + and Cs + ) and variable-size argon clusters (Ar n + , 75 < n < 4000) with energy up to 20 keV. The ion beam conditions are optimized by systematically comparing the sputtering rates and the surface modifications associated with each sputtering beam. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and in-situ scanning probe microscopy are combined to characterize the interfaces and evidence sputtering-related artifacts. Within monatomic beams, 500 eV Cs + results in the most intense and stable ToF-SIMS molecular profiles, almost material-independent sputtering rates and sharp interfaces. Large argon clusters (n > 500) with insufficient energy (E < 10 keV) result in the preferential sputtering of organic molecules and are highly ineffective to sputter small metal clusters (Pb and Au), which tend to artificially accumulate during the depth profile. This is not the case for the optimized cluster ions having a few hundred argon atoms (300 < n < 500) and an energy-per-atom value of at least 20 eV. In these conditions, we obtain (i) the low fragmentation of organic molecules, (ii) convenient erosion rates on soft and hard layers (but still different), and (iii) constant molecular profiles in the perovskite layer, i.e., no accumulation of damages.

AB - Ion beam depth profiling is increasingly used to investigate layers and interfaces in complex multilayered devices, including solar cells. This approach is particularly challenging on hybrid perovskite layers and perovskite solar cells because of the presence of organic/inorganic interfaces requiring the fine optimization of the sputtering beam conditions. The ion beam sputtering must ensure a viable sputtering rate on hard inorganic materials while limiting the chemical (fragmentation), compositional (preferential sputtering) or topographical (roughening and intermixing) modifications on soft organic layers. In this work, model (Cs x (MA 0.17 FA 0.83 ) 100-x Pb(I 0.83 Br 0.17 ) 3 /cTiO 2 /Glass) samples and full mesoscopic perovskite solar cells are profiled using low-energy (500 and 1000 eV) monatomic beams (Ar + and Cs + ) and variable-size argon clusters (Ar n + , 75 < n < 4000) with energy up to 20 keV. The ion beam conditions are optimized by systematically comparing the sputtering rates and the surface modifications associated with each sputtering beam. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and in-situ scanning probe microscopy are combined to characterize the interfaces and evidence sputtering-related artifacts. Within monatomic beams, 500 eV Cs + results in the most intense and stable ToF-SIMS molecular profiles, almost material-independent sputtering rates and sharp interfaces. Large argon clusters (n > 500) with insufficient energy (E < 10 keV) result in the preferential sputtering of organic molecules and are highly ineffective to sputter small metal clusters (Pb and Au), which tend to artificially accumulate during the depth profile. This is not the case for the optimized cluster ions having a few hundred argon atoms (300 < n < 500) and an energy-per-atom value of at least 20 eV. In these conditions, we obtain (i) the low fragmentation of organic molecules, (ii) convenient erosion rates on soft and hard layers (but still different), and (iii) constant molecular profiles in the perovskite layer, i.e., no accumulation of damages.

KW - Argon GCIB

KW - Depth profiling

KW - Hybrid materials

KW - Low-energy Cesium

KW - Perovskite solar cells

KW - ToF-SIMS

KW - XPS

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062943963&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/ma12050726

DO - 10.3390/ma12050726

M3 - Article

VL - 12

JO - 2D Materials

JF - 2D Materials

SN - 2053-1583

IS - 5

M1 - 726

ER -