Declining catches of freshwater clupeids in Lake Tanganyika have recently led to widespread illegal fishing on the clupeid larvae with mosquito nets. This paper examines whether this larval fishery could have a negative impact on the exploitable biomass of the clupeid Limnothrissa miodon Boulenger and whether the sale of clupeid larvae is actually causing economic losses for the male fishers. The beach seine fishery on L. miodon larvae in the coastal zone of DR Congo was surveyed during a cruise in May 2013 from the north to the south of Lake Tanganyika. Local women fishing with their own gear were interviewed, their catch sampled, and their fishing effort evaluated. Based on catch sampling, the annual yield of larval fishing at the 17 fishing sites surveyed was about 24.5 t, worth of US $1.5 per kg. If these fish, now harvested as larvae, were allowed to grow to the average size in the lift-net catches, they would have annually produced 620 t of fish. Applying a price of US $3.5 per kg for adult fish, and subtracting the value of larvae sold, this indicates that the current income of US $36, 800 from the larval fishery translated in to a US $2.1 million loss for the lift-net fishery, thus accentuating the problems facing the fishing community.