Developing host materials with high specific surface area, good electron conductivity, and fast ion transportation channel is critical for high performance lithium-selenium (Li-Se) batteries. Herein, a series of three dimensional ordered hierarchically porous carbon (3D OHPC) materials with micro/meso/macropores are designed and synthesized for Li-Se battery. The porous structure is tuned by following the concept of the generalized Murray's law to facilitate the mass diffusion and reduce ion transport resistance. The optimized 3D Se/OHPC cathode exhibits a very high 2nd discharge capacity of 651 mAh/g and retains 361 mAh/g after 200 cycles at 0.2 C. Even at a high current rate of 5 C, the battery still shows a discharge capacity as high as 155 mAh/g. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergy effect of the interconnected and well-designed micro, meso and macroporosity while shortened ions diffusion pathways of such Murray materials accelerate its ionic and electronic conductivities leading to the enhanced electrochemical reaction. The diffusivity coefficient in Se/OHPC can reach a very high value of 1.3 × 10−11 cm2/s, much higher than those in single pore size carbon hosts. Their effective volume expansion accommodation capability and reduced dissolution of polyselenides ensure the high stability of the battery. This work, for the first time, established the clear relationship between textural properties of cathode materials and their performance and demonstrates that the concept of the generalized Murray's law can be used as efficient guidance for the rational design and synthesis of advanced hierarchically porous materials and the great potential of 3D OHPC materials as a practical high performance cathode material for Li-Se batteries.
- 3D ordered hierarchically porous carbon (OHPC)
- High rate capability
- Li-Se batteries
- Shuttle effect
- The generalized Murray's law
Technological Platform Physical Chemistry and characterization
Facility/equipment: Technological Platform