Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired disorder of the haematopoietic stem cell that makes blood cells more sensitive to the action of complement. PNH patients experience an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis - major causes of death due to this disease. Though many potential interlaced mechanisms are suspected, extracellular vesicles (EVs) of various origins may play a central role. The processes possibly involved are haemolysis, platelet activation, injured endothelial cells and monocyte activation. The impact of transfusion should be evaluated. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved may help to propose guidelines for the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombosis in PNH. In this paper, we propose an updated review of the pathophysiology of the underlying mechanisms of thrombosis associated with PNH, with specific focus on the prominent role of EVs. 2014.
- Extracellular vesicles