The benefits of estetrol addition to drospirenone for contraception

Jean Michel Foidart, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Ali Kubba, Jonathan Douxfils, Mitchell D Creinin, Ulysse Gaspard

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Abstract

Ethinylestradiol and drospirenone combined oral contraceptive formulations have been marketed for >20 years. Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid and anti-androgenic effects that may offer several health benefits. Recently, 2 new drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives entered the market, 1 as a progestin-only pill containing 4 mg drospirenone and the other as a combined oral contraceptive containing 15 mg estetrol and 3 mg drospirenone. Estetrol has a unique differential effect on nuclear and membrane estrogen α-receptors when compared with other estrogens, leading to low impact on the liver, breast, and hemostasis parameters and a beneficial effect on the endometrium, vagina, cardiovascular system, bone, and brain. Phase 3 clinical studies demonstrated that the Pearl Index (pregnancies per 100-woman-years) for drospirenone alone is 4.0 in the United States and 0.93 in the European Union and for the estetrol-drospirenone combination it is 2.65 and 0.44, respectively. Drospirenone alone demonstrates high rates of unscheduled bleeding and low rates of scheduled bleeding, whereas the estetrol-drospirenone combination demonstrates a predictable and regular bleeding profile for most users with a high stable rate of scheduled bleeding and a low rate of unscheduled bleeding, reported primarily as spotting only. The adverse event profiles and discontinuation rates owing to adverse events are comparable, and no clinically significant effects were observed on metabolic parameters with either product. Hemostatic assays for drospirenone do not fully evaluate all parameters although the testing that is available suggests negligible effects, whereas validated hemostatic assays demonstrate that the estetrol-drospirenone combination has limited impact on hemostasis. The introduction of 4 mg drospirenone and 15 mg estetrol with 3 mg drospirenone are valuable additions to the contraceptive market. Adding estetrol to 3 mg drospirenone provides advantages of contraceptive efficacy and a regular, predictable bleeding profile with minimal impact on hemostasis parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100266
Pages (from-to)100266
JournalAJOG global reports
Volume3
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

Keywords

  • contraception
  • drospirenone
  • E4
  • EE
  • estetrol
  • ethinylestradiol

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