A 70-kb virulence plasmid (sometimes called pYV) enables Yersinia spp. to survive and multiply in the lymphoid tissues of their host. It encodes the Yop virulon, a system consisting of secreted proteins called Yops and their dedicated type III secretion apparatus called Ysc. The Ysc apparatus forms a channel composed of 29 proteins. Of these, 10 have counterparts in almost every type III system. Secretion of some Yops requires the assistance, in the bacterial cytosol, of small individual chaperones called the Syc proteins. These chaperones act as bodyguards or secretion pilots for their partner Yop. Yop proteins fall into two categories. Some are intracellular effectors, whereas the others are "translocators" needed to deliver the effectors across the eukaryotic plasma membrane, into eukaryotic cells. The translocators (YopB, YopD, LcrV) form a pore of 16-23 A in the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane. The effector Yops are YopE, YopH, YpkA/YopO, YopP/YopJ, YopM, and YopT. YopH is a powerful phosphotyrosine phosphatase playing an antiphagocytic role by dephosphorylating several focal adhesion proteins. YopE and YopT contribute to antiphagocytic effects by inactivating GTPases controlling cytoskeleton dynamics. YopP/YopJ plays an anti-inflammatory role by preventing the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. It also induces rapid apoptosis of macrophages. Less is known about the role of the phosphoserine kinase YopO/YpkA and YopM.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|