From molecular to macroscopic engineering: Shaping hydrogen-bonded organic nanomaterials

K. Yoosaf, A. Llanes-Pallas, T. Marangoni, A. Belbakra, R. Marega, Edith Botek, B. Champagne, D. Bonifazi, N. Armaroli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The self-assembly and self-organization behavior of chromophoric acetylenic scaffolds bearing 2,6-bis(acetylamino)pyridine (1, 2) or uracyl-type (3-9) terminal groups has been investigated by photophysical and microscopic methods. Systematic absorption and luminescence studies show that 1 and 2, thanks to a combination of solvophilic/solvophobic forces and π-π stacking interactions, undergo self-organization in apolar solvents (i.e., cyclohexane) and form spherical nanoparticles, as evidenced by wide-field optical microscopy, TEM, and AFM analysis. For the longer molecular module, 2, a more uniform size distribution is found (80-200nm) compared to 1 (20-1000nm). Temperature scans in the range 283-353K show that the self-organized nanoparticles are reversibly formed and destroyed, being stable at lower temperatures. Molecular modules 1 and 2 were then thoroughly mixed with the complementary triply hydrogen-bonding units 3-9. Depending on the specific geometrical structure of 3-9, different nanostructures are evidenced by microscopic investigations. Combination of modules 1 or 2 with 3, which bears only one terminal uracyl unit, leads to the formation of vesicular structures; instead, when 1 is combined with bis-uracyl derivative 4 or 5, a structural evolution from nanoparticles to nanowires is observed. The length of the wires obtained by mixing 1 and 4 or 1 and 5 can be controlled by addition of 3, which prompts transformation of the wires into shorter rods. The replacement of linear system 5 with the related angular modules 6 and 7 enables formation of helical nanostructures, unambiguously evidenced by AFM. Finally, thermally induced self-assembly was studied in parallel with modules 8 and 9, in which the uracyl recognition sites are protected with tert-butyloxycarbonyl (BOC) groups. This strategy allows further control of the self-assembly/self-organization process by temperature, since the BOC group is completely removed on heating. Microscopy studies show that the BOC-protected ditopic modules 8 self-assemble and self-organize with 1 into ordered linear nanostructures, whereas BOC-protected tritopic system 9 gives rise to extended domains of circular nano-objects in combination with 1.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3262-3273
Number of pages12
JournalChemistry: A European Journal
Volume17
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Mar 2011

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Nanostructured materials
Self assembly
Hydrogen
Nanostructures
Nanoparticles
Bearings (structural)
Wire
Cyclohexane
Scaffolds
Pyridine
Temperature
Nanowires
Optical microscopy
Linear systems
Luminescence
Hydrogen bonds
Microscopic examination
Transmission electron microscopy
Derivatives
Heating

Cite this

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title = "From molecular to macroscopic engineering: Shaping hydrogen-bonded organic nanomaterials",
abstract = "The self-assembly and self-organization behavior of chromophoric acetylenic scaffolds bearing 2,6-bis(acetylamino)pyridine (1, 2) or uracyl-type (3-9) terminal groups has been investigated by photophysical and microscopic methods. Systematic absorption and luminescence studies show that 1 and 2, thanks to a combination of solvophilic/solvophobic forces and π-π stacking interactions, undergo self-organization in apolar solvents (i.e., cyclohexane) and form spherical nanoparticles, as evidenced by wide-field optical microscopy, TEM, and AFM analysis. For the longer molecular module, 2, a more uniform size distribution is found (80-200nm) compared to 1 (20-1000nm). Temperature scans in the range 283-353K show that the self-organized nanoparticles are reversibly formed and destroyed, being stable at lower temperatures. Molecular modules 1 and 2 were then thoroughly mixed with the complementary triply hydrogen-bonding units 3-9. Depending on the specific geometrical structure of 3-9, different nanostructures are evidenced by microscopic investigations. Combination of modules 1 or 2 with 3, which bears only one terminal uracyl unit, leads to the formation of vesicular structures; instead, when 1 is combined with bis-uracyl derivative 4 or 5, a structural evolution from nanoparticles to nanowires is observed. The length of the wires obtained by mixing 1 and 4 or 1 and 5 can be controlled by addition of 3, which prompts transformation of the wires into shorter rods. The replacement of linear system 5 with the related angular modules 6 and 7 enables formation of helical nanostructures, unambiguously evidenced by AFM. Finally, thermally induced self-assembly was studied in parallel with modules 8 and 9, in which the uracyl recognition sites are protected with tert-butyloxycarbonyl (BOC) groups. This strategy allows further control of the self-assembly/self-organization process by temperature, since the BOC group is completely removed on heating. Microscopy studies show that the BOC-protected ditopic modules 8 self-assemble and self-organize with 1 into ordered linear nanostructures, whereas BOC-protected tritopic system 9 gives rise to extended domains of circular nano-objects in combination with 1.",
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From molecular to macroscopic engineering : Shaping hydrogen-bonded organic nanomaterials. / Yoosaf, K.; Llanes-Pallas, A.; Marangoni, T.; Belbakra, A.; Marega, R.; Botek, Edith; Champagne, B.; Bonifazi, D.; Armaroli, N.

In: Chemistry: A European Journal, Vol. 17, No. 11, 07.03.2011, p. 3262-3273.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - From molecular to macroscopic engineering

T2 - Shaping hydrogen-bonded organic nanomaterials

AU - Yoosaf, K.

AU - Llanes-Pallas, A.

AU - Marangoni, T.

AU - Belbakra, A.

AU - Marega, R.

AU - Botek, Edith

AU - Champagne, B.

AU - Bonifazi, D.

AU - Armaroli, N.

N1 - Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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Y1 - 2011/3/7

N2 - The self-assembly and self-organization behavior of chromophoric acetylenic scaffolds bearing 2,6-bis(acetylamino)pyridine (1, 2) or uracyl-type (3-9) terminal groups has been investigated by photophysical and microscopic methods. Systematic absorption and luminescence studies show that 1 and 2, thanks to a combination of solvophilic/solvophobic forces and π-π stacking interactions, undergo self-organization in apolar solvents (i.e., cyclohexane) and form spherical nanoparticles, as evidenced by wide-field optical microscopy, TEM, and AFM analysis. For the longer molecular module, 2, a more uniform size distribution is found (80-200nm) compared to 1 (20-1000nm). Temperature scans in the range 283-353K show that the self-organized nanoparticles are reversibly formed and destroyed, being stable at lower temperatures. Molecular modules 1 and 2 were then thoroughly mixed with the complementary triply hydrogen-bonding units 3-9. Depending on the specific geometrical structure of 3-9, different nanostructures are evidenced by microscopic investigations. Combination of modules 1 or 2 with 3, which bears only one terminal uracyl unit, leads to the formation of vesicular structures; instead, when 1 is combined with bis-uracyl derivative 4 or 5, a structural evolution from nanoparticles to nanowires is observed. The length of the wires obtained by mixing 1 and 4 or 1 and 5 can be controlled by addition of 3, which prompts transformation of the wires into shorter rods. The replacement of linear system 5 with the related angular modules 6 and 7 enables formation of helical nanostructures, unambiguously evidenced by AFM. Finally, thermally induced self-assembly was studied in parallel with modules 8 and 9, in which the uracyl recognition sites are protected with tert-butyloxycarbonyl (BOC) groups. This strategy allows further control of the self-assembly/self-organization process by temperature, since the BOC group is completely removed on heating. Microscopy studies show that the BOC-protected ditopic modules 8 self-assemble and self-organize with 1 into ordered linear nanostructures, whereas BOC-protected tritopic system 9 gives rise to extended domains of circular nano-objects in combination with 1.

AB - The self-assembly and self-organization behavior of chromophoric acetylenic scaffolds bearing 2,6-bis(acetylamino)pyridine (1, 2) or uracyl-type (3-9) terminal groups has been investigated by photophysical and microscopic methods. Systematic absorption and luminescence studies show that 1 and 2, thanks to a combination of solvophilic/solvophobic forces and π-π stacking interactions, undergo self-organization in apolar solvents (i.e., cyclohexane) and form spherical nanoparticles, as evidenced by wide-field optical microscopy, TEM, and AFM analysis. For the longer molecular module, 2, a more uniform size distribution is found (80-200nm) compared to 1 (20-1000nm). Temperature scans in the range 283-353K show that the self-organized nanoparticles are reversibly formed and destroyed, being stable at lower temperatures. Molecular modules 1 and 2 were then thoroughly mixed with the complementary triply hydrogen-bonding units 3-9. Depending on the specific geometrical structure of 3-9, different nanostructures are evidenced by microscopic investigations. Combination of modules 1 or 2 with 3, which bears only one terminal uracyl unit, leads to the formation of vesicular structures; instead, when 1 is combined with bis-uracyl derivative 4 or 5, a structural evolution from nanoparticles to nanowires is observed. The length of the wires obtained by mixing 1 and 4 or 1 and 5 can be controlled by addition of 3, which prompts transformation of the wires into shorter rods. The replacement of linear system 5 with the related angular modules 6 and 7 enables formation of helical nanostructures, unambiguously evidenced by AFM. Finally, thermally induced self-assembly was studied in parallel with modules 8 and 9, in which the uracyl recognition sites are protected with tert-butyloxycarbonyl (BOC) groups. This strategy allows further control of the self-assembly/self-organization process by temperature, since the BOC group is completely removed on heating. Microscopy studies show that the BOC-protected ditopic modules 8 self-assemble and self-organize with 1 into ordered linear nanostructures, whereas BOC-protected tritopic system 9 gives rise to extended domains of circular nano-objects in combination with 1.

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