This work surveys the literature on global fragmentation of production also known as global value chains (GVCs), which is nowadays acknowledged to be the dominant feature of international trade. The recent trends as long as the driving forces behind the expansion of GVCs are first discussed. Then, the measurement indicators and the databases are presented. Next, the effects of GVCs in developing countries especially on trade flows, productivity and labor market are reviewed. Finally, we supplement this review of impacts with a case study on a major African economy, Nigeria, to see whether GVCs have shaped the production structure of this oil-producing country.