Unconventional endocytic mechanisms

Henri François Renard, Emmanuel Boucrot

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Résumé

Endocytosis mediates the uptake of extracellular proteins, micronutrients and transmembrane cell surface proteins. Importantly, many viruses, toxins and bacteria hijack endocytosis to infect cells. The canonical pathway is clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and is active in all eukaryotic cells to support critical house-keeping functions. Unconventional mechanisms of endocytosis exit in parallel of CME, to internalize specific cargoes and support various cellular functions. These clathrin-independent endocytic (CIE) routes use three distinct mechanisms: acute signaling-induced membrane remodeling drives macropinocytosis, activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE), massive endocytosis (MEND) and EGFR non-clathrin endocytosis (EGFR-NCE). Cargo capture and local membrane deformation by cytosolic proteins is used by fast endophilin-mediated endocytosis (FEME), IL-2Rβ endocytosis and ultrafast endocytosis at synapses. Finally, the formation of endocytic pits by clustering of extracellular lipids or cargoes according to the Glycolipid-Lectin (GL-Lect) hypothesis mediates the uptake of SV40 virus, Shiga and cholera toxins, and galectin-clustered receptors by the CLIC/GEEC and the endophilin-A3-mediated CIE.

langue originaleAnglais
Pages (de - à)120-129
Nombre de pages10
journalCurrent Opinion in Cell Biology
Volume71
Date de mise en ligne précoce13 avr. 2021
Les DOIs
Etat de la publicationE-pub ahead of print - 13 avr. 2021

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