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Dermatophytoses are superficial infections of human and animal keratinized tissues caused by filamentous fungi named dermatophytes. Because of a high and increasing incidence, as well as the emergence of antifungal resistance, a better understanding of mechanisms involved in adhesion and invasion by dermatophytes is required for the further development of new therapeu-tic strategies. In the last years, several in vitro and in vivo models have emerged to study dermato-phytosis pathogenesis. However, the procedures used for the growth of fungi are quite different, leading to a highly variable composition of inoculum for these models (microconidia, arthroconidia, hyphae), thus rendering difficult the global interpretation of observations. We hereby optimized growth conditions, including medium, temperature, atmosphere, and duration of culture, to im-prove the sporulation and viability and to favour the production of arthroconidia of several derma-tophyte species, including Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton benhamiae. The resulting suspen-sions were then used as inoculum to infect reconstructed human epidermis in order to validate their ability to adhere to and to invade host tissues. By this way, this paper provides recommendations for dermatophytes culture and paves the way towards a standardized procedure for the production of infective spores usable in in vitro and in vivo experimental models.
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