Structure and Reactivity of Indolylmethylium Ions: Scope and Limitations in Synthetic Applications

Elsa Follet, Guillaume Berionni, Peter Mayer, Herbert Mayr

Résultats de recherche: Contribution à un journal/une revueArticle

Résumé

Eight substituted aryl(indol-3-yl)methylium tetrafluoroborates 3(a-h)-BF4 and three bis(indol-3-yl)methylium tetrafluoroborates 3(i-k)-BF4 have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Their reactions with π-nucleophiles 8(a-j) (silylated enol ethers and ketene acetals) were studied kinetically using photometric monitoring at 20 °C. The resulting second-order rate constants were found to follow the correlation log k(20 °C) = sN(N + E), in which nucleophiles are characterized by the two solvent-dependent parameters N and sN, and electrophiles are characterized by one parameter, E. From the previously reported N and sN parameters of the employed nucleophiles and the measured rate constants, the electrophilicities of the indol-3-ylmethylium ions 3(a-k) were derived and used to predict potential nucleophilic reaction partners. A discrepancy between published rate constants for the reactions of morpholine and piperidine with the (2-methylindol-3-yl)phenylmethylium ion 3h and those calculated from E, N, and sN was analyzed and demonstrated to be due to a mistake of the value reported in the literature.

langue originaleAnglais
Pages (de - à)8643-8656
Nombre de pages14
journalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Volume80
Numéro de publication17
Les DOIs
étatPublié - 28 juil. 2015
Modification externeOui

Empreinte digitale

Nucleophiles
Rate constants
Ions
Acetals
Ethers
X ray crystallography
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Monitoring
methyl radical

Citer ceci

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title = "Structure and Reactivity of Indolylmethylium Ions: Scope and Limitations in Synthetic Applications",
abstract = "Eight substituted aryl(indol-3-yl)methylium tetrafluoroborates 3(a-h)-BF4 and three bis(indol-3-yl)methylium tetrafluoroborates 3(i-k)-BF4 have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Their reactions with π-nucleophiles 8(a-j) (silylated enol ethers and ketene acetals) were studied kinetically using photometric monitoring at 20 °C. The resulting second-order rate constants were found to follow the correlation log k(20 °C) = sN(N + E), in which nucleophiles are characterized by the two solvent-dependent parameters N and sN, and electrophiles are characterized by one parameter, E. From the previously reported N and sN parameters of the employed nucleophiles and the measured rate constants, the electrophilicities of the indol-3-ylmethylium ions 3(a-k) were derived and used to predict potential nucleophilic reaction partners. A discrepancy between published rate constants for the reactions of morpholine and piperidine with the (2-methylindol-3-yl)phenylmethylium ion 3h and those calculated from E, N, and sN was analyzed and demonstrated to be due to a mistake of the value reported in the literature.",
author = "Elsa Follet and Guillaume Berionni and Peter Mayer and Herbert Mayr",
year = "2015",
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Structure and Reactivity of Indolylmethylium Ions : Scope and Limitations in Synthetic Applications. / Follet, Elsa; Berionni, Guillaume; Mayer, Peter; Mayr, Herbert.

Dans: Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol 80, Numéro 17, 28.07.2015, p. 8643-8656.

Résultats de recherche: Contribution à un journal/une revueArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Structure and Reactivity of Indolylmethylium Ions

T2 - Scope and Limitations in Synthetic Applications

AU - Follet, Elsa

AU - Berionni, Guillaume

AU - Mayer, Peter

AU - Mayr, Herbert

PY - 2015/7/28

Y1 - 2015/7/28

N2 - Eight substituted aryl(indol-3-yl)methylium tetrafluoroborates 3(a-h)-BF4 and three bis(indol-3-yl)methylium tetrafluoroborates 3(i-k)-BF4 have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Their reactions with π-nucleophiles 8(a-j) (silylated enol ethers and ketene acetals) were studied kinetically using photometric monitoring at 20 °C. The resulting second-order rate constants were found to follow the correlation log k(20 °C) = sN(N + E), in which nucleophiles are characterized by the two solvent-dependent parameters N and sN, and electrophiles are characterized by one parameter, E. From the previously reported N and sN parameters of the employed nucleophiles and the measured rate constants, the electrophilicities of the indol-3-ylmethylium ions 3(a-k) were derived and used to predict potential nucleophilic reaction partners. A discrepancy between published rate constants for the reactions of morpholine and piperidine with the (2-methylindol-3-yl)phenylmethylium ion 3h and those calculated from E, N, and sN was analyzed and demonstrated to be due to a mistake of the value reported in the literature.

AB - Eight substituted aryl(indol-3-yl)methylium tetrafluoroborates 3(a-h)-BF4 and three bis(indol-3-yl)methylium tetrafluoroborates 3(i-k)-BF4 have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Their reactions with π-nucleophiles 8(a-j) (silylated enol ethers and ketene acetals) were studied kinetically using photometric monitoring at 20 °C. The resulting second-order rate constants were found to follow the correlation log k(20 °C) = sN(N + E), in which nucleophiles are characterized by the two solvent-dependent parameters N and sN, and electrophiles are characterized by one parameter, E. From the previously reported N and sN parameters of the employed nucleophiles and the measured rate constants, the electrophilicities of the indol-3-ylmethylium ions 3(a-k) were derived and used to predict potential nucleophilic reaction partners. A discrepancy between published rate constants for the reactions of morpholine and piperidine with the (2-methylindol-3-yl)phenylmethylium ion 3h and those calculated from E, N, and sN was analyzed and demonstrated to be due to a mistake of the value reported in the literature.

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