The YscC secretin is a major component of the type III protein secretion system of Yersinia enterocolitica and forms an oligomeric structure in the outer membrane. In a mutant lacking the outer membrane lipoprotein YscW, secretion is strongly reduced, and it has been proposed that YscW plays a role in the biogenesis of the secretin. To study the interaction between the secretin and this putative pilot protein, YscC and YscW were produced in trans in a Y. enterocolitica strain lacking all other components of the secretion machinery. YscW expression increased the yield of oligomeric YscC and was required for its outer membrane localization, confirming the function of YscW as a pilot protein. Whereas the pilot-binding site of other members of the secretin family has been identified in the C terminus, a truncated YscC derivative lacking the C-terminal 96 amino acid residues was functional and stabilized by YscW. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that approximately 30 min were required before YscC oligomerization was completed. In the absence of YscW, oligomerization was delayed and the yield of YscC oligomers was strongly reduced. An unlipidated form of the YscW protein was not functional, although it still interacted with the secretin and caused mislocalization of YscC even in the presence of wild-type YscW. Hence, YscW interacts with the unassembled YscC protein and facilitates efficient oligomerization, likely at the outer membrane.