Illite Kübler index (KI) and oxygen isotope (brachiopods and micrites) investigations have been performed on more than 300 Frasnian limestones sampled in one borehole and numerous outcrops in the Dinant Synclinorium (Belgium, northern France) of the northern Variscan front. The illite Kübler index and δ18O data of a 3-km-thick, tectonically repeated Frasnian series from the Focant borehole are compared with their surrounding surface correspondents and document in-situ reheating induced by Variscan tectonic loading, which post-dated sedimentary burial alteration. The boundary between these two thermal processes (sedimentary burial and tectonic loading) on the Focant profile corresponds to an important location where the heat induced by the tectonic loading was equivalent to that Frasnian strata suffered during maximum sedimentary burial. Mainly based on this knowledge and on a former conodont colour alteration index study, the thickness of the eroded thrust sheet in the Focant area is estimated to be around 3,000 m. Oxygen isotopic exchange in these Frasnian closed carbonate systems, occurring under highest-grade diagenesis and anchimetamorphism, records two events. Brachiopods present a quite different and more homogeneous pattern, due to their higher resistance to heat alteration. These thermal events caused both δ18O records to become increasingly lighter than the presumed original seawater signature. The comparison between KI and δ18O profiles indicates that illite KI analysis is more appropriate than δ18O in highlighting the temperature variations in the burial metamorphism at the periphery of orogenic belts.