The impact of commonly used pesticides, endosulfan and deltamethrin, on the molecular stress level in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, was assessed using classical oxidative stress biomarkers, protein carbonylation profiles, and levels of heat shock proteins. Results showed that 4 days exposure to 0.1 μg L deltamethrin significantly (p <0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in gills (64.3 ± 3.2 compared to 34.2 ± 5.3 nmol MDA equiv. g tissue at day 0). However, no pesticide treatment had significant effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Carbonylated protein profiles were determined on gills following 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization and 2D-PAGE along with Western blotting. Immunoblotting with dinitrophenol-specific antibody revealed 17 protein spots carbonylated in response to 4 days exposure to 0.1 μg L deltamethrin while 24 protein spots specifically oxidized at day 0 were no longer detected after deltamethrin treatment. On the other hand, endosulfan exposure at 0.1 and 1 μg L induced up to 2.1-fold increase of HSP90 level in muscle. This approach is providing new insights into the molecular impacts of deltamethrin and endosulfan on an economically important crustacean. While deltamethrin has shown a pro-oxidant effect in gills, endosulfan exposure rather induced proteotoxic effects in muscles. This argues that LPO level, protein carbonylation specificities, and HSP90 levels may be potential discriminating biomarkers to assess the chemical stress level in farm shrimp.