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Purpose: We explored the potential overall survival (OS) benefit of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP) over doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) in a pooled analysis of four randomized trials. Patients and methods: Primary objective was to evaluate the OS impact of BEACOPP using individual patient data. Secondary objectives were progression-free survival (PFS), secondary cancers, and use of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Results: About 1227 patients were included. The 7-year OS was 84.3% (95% CI 80.8-87.2) for ABVD vs 87.7% (95% CI 84.5-90.2) for BEACOPP. Two follow-up periods were identified based on survival curves and hazard ratio (HR) over time. For the first 18 months, there was no difference. For the second period of ≥18 months, ABVD patients had a higher death risk (HR ABVD vs BEACOPP = 1.59; 95% CI 1.09-2.33). A Cox model stratified by trial and evaluating the effect of treatment and International Prognostic Index (IPI) score as fixed effects showed that both were statistically significant (treatment, P =.0185; IPI score, P =.0107). The 7-year PFS was 71.1% (95% CI 67.1-74.6) for ABVD vs 81.1% (95% CI 77.5-84.2) for BEACOPP (P '.001). After ABVD, 25 secondary cancers (4.0%) were reported with no myelodysplasia (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared to 36 (6.5%) after BEACOPP, which included 13 patients with MDS/AML. Following ABVD, 86 patients (13.8%) received ASCT vs 39 (6.4%) for BEACOPP. Conclusions: This analysis showed a slight improvement in OS for BEACOPP and confirmed a PFS benefit. Frontline use of BEACOPP instead of ABVD increased secondary leukemia incidence but halved the requirement for ASCT.