Eicosanoids, resolvins, and lipoxins formed from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are the main lipid mediators in the inflammatory processes explaining the influence of dietary lipid sources on the immune system. The current study aimed to determine the effects of dietary plant oils instead of fish oil or LC-PUFA supplementation in these oils on fish immune and inflammatory responses under normal and LPS-stimulated conditions. Six iso-nitrogenous (ranging from 30.4 to 31.1%) and iso-lipidic (from 11.2 to 11.6%) diets were formulated using three oil sources: cod liver oil (CLO, as fish oil control); linseed oil (LO, rich in α-linolenic acid, ALA); sesame oil (SO, rich in linoleic acid, LA); a blend of LO and SO (SLO, v:v 1:1); and two pure plant oil diets supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid, DHA (SO + DHA, SOD) or arachidonic acid, ARA (LO + ARA, LOA). Fish were fed the experimental diets to satiation for 42 days. On day 43, they were injected with E.coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 100 μg/fish. Fish plasma and tissues such as head kidney and liver were collected on day 42 and one day after LPS injection (day 44) for humoral immune variables and gene expression analyses, respectively. After 42 days of feeding, no influences of dietary oils were found on fish survival, growth, feed utilization, and humoral immune responses. On the other hand, LPS injection significantly stimulated immune responses and induced an acute inflammation in common carp through an increase of the complement activity and the up-regulation of genes involved in the innate immune system (c2), pro-inflammatory response (tlr-4, tnf-α, il-1, il-6, il-8, and cxc), eicosanoid metabolism (pla2, cox-1, 5-lox, and pge2), and anti-inflammatory response (tgf-β1 and nf-fki). Further, the expression of hsp70 was stimulated by LPS injection. The effects of dietary oil sources were observed after LPS injection, with a significant modification in the expression of almost all candidate genes. The highest pro-inflammatory responses induced by LPS were observed in CLO-fed fish while the mixture of plant oils (SLO) and LC-PUFA-supplemented diets induced significantly higher modulations in anti-inflammatory responses (il-10 and nf-kbi), general stress status (hsp70), and cytoprotection (gpx-1) compared to fish oil control and other pure plant oil groups. In conclusion, the immune response of common carp has been modified by the dietary fat sources. The fish oil-based diet supported an increase of the pro-inflammatory responses while the mixture of plant oil or LC-PUFA supplemented diets improved the anti-inflammatory responses and cytoprotection.