YopM is a type III secretion effector from Yersinia which contributes to pathogenicity but whose action still remains unclear. It is an acidic, leucine-rich repeats (LRR) containing protein which migrates to the nucleus of target cells in spite of the fact that it does not contain any classical nuclear localization signal (NLS). Using a yeast approach, we observed that the three first LRRs (LRR1-3) and the 32 C-terminal residues of YopM (YopMC-ter) act as NLSs in yeast. Furthermore, by transfection of HEK293T cells, we observed that YopMC-ter could direct large recombinant EGFP-LexA-AD proteins into the nucleus of mammalian cells confirming that it contains a NLS. Critical residues for nuclear targeting were identified by site-directed mutagenesis in YopMC-ter. In addition, we show that YopMC-ter NLS is crucial for the nuclear targeting of an EGFP-YopM fusion protein.
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Benabdillah, R., Mota, L. J., Lützelschwab, S., Demoinet, E., & Cornelis, G. R. (2004). Identification of a nuclear targeting signal in YopM from Yersinia spp. Microbial pathogenesis, 36(5), 247-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2003.12.006