A major issue in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Multidrug resistance can be caused by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The majority of these proteins have not yet been examined in T-ALL. Using a newly developed microarray for the simultaneous quantification of 38 ABC transporter genes, we observed a consistent overexpression of ABCA2/ABCA3 in clinical samples of ALL. Therefore, we analyzed the association of these two genes with drug resistance. Treatment of CCRF-CEM and Jurkat cells with methotrexate, vinblastine, or doxorubicin led to an induction of ABCA3 expression, whereas a significant increase of ABCA2 expression was only observed in Jurkat cells. To study the causal relationship of ABCA2/A3 overexpression with drug resistance, we applied RNA interference (RNAi) technology. RNAi specific for ABCA2 or ABCA3 led to a partial decrease of expression in these two ABC transporters. Upon cotreatment of RNAi for ABCA2 with methotrexate and vinblastine, a partial decrease of ABCA2 expression as well as a simultaneous increase of ABCA3 expression was observed. Vice versa, ABCA3 RNAi plus drugs decreased ABCA3 and increased ABCA2 expression. This indicates that down-regulation of one ABC transporter was compensated by the up-regulation of the other. Application of RNAi for both ABCA2 and ABCA3 resulted in a more efficient reduction of the expression of both transporters. As a consequence, a significant sensitization of cells to cytostatic drugs was achieved. In conclusion, ABCA2 and ABCA3 are expressed in many T-ALL and contribute to drug resistance.