Hyaluronan (HA) is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix. It is present in the endothelial glycocalyx covering the apical surface of endothelial cells. The endothelial glycocalyx regulates blood vessel permeability and homeostasis. HA plays a central role in numerous functions of the endothelial surface layer, protecting the endothelial cells, regulating the barrier permeability, and ensuring mechanosensing, which is essential to nitric oxide production and flow-induced vasodilation. During acute injury, inflammatory conditions, or many other pathologic conditions, the endothelial glycocalyx is damaged, and its degradation is accompanied by shedding of one or more glycocalyx components into the blood. Syndecan-1, heparan sulfate, and HA are the main components whose shedding has been claimed to represent the endothelial glycocalyx state of health. This review focuses on endothelial glycocalyx HA and highlights its key roles in the functions of the endothelial glycocalyx, its shedding in several pathologic conditions such as sepsis, diabetes, chronic and acute kidney injury, ischemia/reperfusion, atherosclerosis, and inflammation, which are all accompanied by increased circulating HA levels. Plasma/serum HA level is becoming recognized as a biomarker of endothelial glycocalyx damage in select pathologies. Hyaluronidase, the main HA-degrading enzyme, and its involvement in the impairment of endothelial glycocalyx are also addressed.