Combined toxicity of Cd and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the earthworm Eisenia andrei under biochar amendment

Iteb Boughattas, Nesrine Zitouni, Marouane Mkhinini, Omayma Missawi, Sondes Helaoui, Sabrine Hattab, Moncef Mokni, Noureddine Bousserrhine, Mohamed Banni

Résultats de recherche: Contribution à un journal/une revueArticleRevue par des pairs


Due to anthropogenic activities, various pollutants can be found in agricultural soil, such as cadmium (Cd) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). They are highly toxic and can have a negative impact on soil fertility. For remediation strategies, biochar has acquired considerable attention due to its benefits for agriculture. However, we should recognize the ecological risk posed by biochar use. In addition, little is known about its non-desirable effects on soil organisms such as earthworms, especially in the case of soil remediation. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were exposed to soil contaminated with Cd (0.7 mg/kg), (2,4-D) (7 mg/kg), and a mixture of the two in the presence and absence of biochar (2%). A 7- and 14-day incubation experiment was carried out for this purpose. Cd and 2,4-D uptakes in earthworms’ tissues, oxidative stress, cytotoxic response, DNA damage, histopathological changes, and gene expression level were assessed. Results suggested that biochar increased the bioavailability of Cd and 2,4-D and the frequency of micronuclei (MNi) and decreased the lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) in earthworms. Also, histopathological examination detected numerous alterations in animals exposed to the contaminants without any amelioration when biochar was added. The biochemical response of earthworms in terms of oxidative stress demonstrates that in the presence of biochar, animals tend to alleviate the toxicity of Cd and 2,4-D. This was also supported by transcriptomic analyses where expression gene levels related to oxidative stress were upregulated in earthworms exposed to Cd and 2,4-D + biochar. The present investigation brought new insights concerning the use of biochar in agriculture.

langue originaleAnglais
Pages (de - à)34915-34931
Nombre de pages17
journalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Numéro de publication12
Les DOIs
Etat de la publicationPublié - mars 2023
Modification externeOui

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