Aphasiology has undergone many changes since its inception in the 19the century. One of the major questions is that of the causal relations between aphasia, language and cortical functioning, and to this day there is no decision made on this matter. Critical analysis of the way to collect observation evidences opens new perspectives, by bringing to light the involvement of the role of the observer’s knowledge in this collection of pathological language facts. The “Anthropobiology” theory of Jean Gagnepain and Olivier Sabouraud, makes it possible to consider an alternative clinic of aphasia, innovative, based on a model that offers a deconstruction of language that goes beyond an explanation of linguistic evidences only. It turns out, indeed, that we cannot question the neurological clinic of aphasia, without interrogating in return the specificity of our own humanity in this analysis.