Impact des rejets de la ville de Niamey (Niger) sur la qualité des eaux du fleuve Niger

  • Bassirou Alhou

Student thesis: Doc typesDoctor of Sciences

Abstract

This survey is a first step in the study of water quality of the River Niger in Niamey. It is based on physicochemical factors and the macroinvertebrates inhabiting this aquatic ecosystem. The physicochemical approach underlines the changes in water quality, along the banks, in relation with wastewater from the city of Niamey, and as a response to seasonal variations of water level. The impact of wastewater on the scale of the entire ecosystem appears very limited, because of the strong dilution. Chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, phosphates and total phosphorus levels are the main environmental factors that determine both the pollution due to organic (and oxidizable) matter, and the pollution resulting from nitrogen and phosphorus-based chemicals in this river. In this survey 83 taxa of macroinvertebrates were found along the River Niger in Niamey. The description of macroinvertebrates shows a variation of community structure, from upstream to downstream, that is characterized by a decrease of taxonomic richness and diversity downstream wastewater discharges. The presence of Chironomus gr. plumosus, Melania sp., families of Syrphidae and Culicidae indicates a deterioration of water quality due to organic matter in some stations near wastewater discharges. However, taxa like Thraulus sp., Elassoneuria sp., Afronurus sp., Centroptiloides sp., Adenophlebia sp., Dipseudopsis sp. and Neoperla sp. reflect a better quality of water in the reference stations located upstream of all wastewater discharges. The high diversity of Chironomidae (20 taxa) in this river makes them a good candidate taxonomic group to be used for the assessment of water quality in the River Niger near Niamey. The factors which significantly explain the distribution of macroinvertebrates communities along the River Niger in Niamey are organic matter (chemical oxygen demand) and nutrients (ammonium, phosphates, total phosphorus). Results from net hand samples explain a higher fraction of total inertia than the ones obtained using artificial substrata. Water hyacinths play a limited role in the survey of water quality in the Niger near Niamey, because they are only present during floodperiods.
Date of Award22 Feb 2007
Original languageFrench
Awarding Institution
  • University of Namur
SupervisorJean-Claude MICHA (Supervisor), Eric DEPIEREUX (Jury), Abdelkader DODO (Co-Supervisor), Francois DARCHAMBEAU (Jury) & Boudewijn GODDEERIS (Jury)

Keywords

  • Aquatic ecosystem
  • Macroinvertebrates
  • Physicochemical factors
  • Niamey
  • River Niger
  • Water quality
  • écosystème aquatique
  • Physico-chimie
  • Macroinvertébrés
  • Qualité des eaux
  • Fleuve Niger

Cite this

Impact des rejets de la ville de Niamey (Niger) sur la qualité des eaux du fleuve Niger
Alhou, B. (Author). 22 Feb 2007

Student thesis: Doc typesDoctor of Sciences