Metallic implants are widely used these days but need seriously improvement to show longer life and better biomedical applications properties. That’s where nanoscience and surface modification can be useful by opening a wide range of possibilities. This work is more precisely focused on orthopaedic or dental applications. To be used as dental or orthopaedic implants, the metal has to show properties like biocompatibility, great corrosion resistance, good bulk properties, but also a bioactivity. This last characteristic means that bone should spontaneously grow on the implant surface unless we’ll encounter adhesion problems and risks of loosening. The way proposed in this work is the optimisation of the titanium surface properties. In fact, titanium and its alloys present good bulk properties but do not show good bioactivity. By the deposition of a thin tantalum oxide layer on bare titanium, we improve that last point. The tantalum deposition is investigated by two different methods, first one is electrodeposition in ionic liquid media and second one is sol-gel deposition. As some works in literature showed that roughness could play a role in osteoinductive properties, the morphology of the thin oxide layer is controlled by two different approaches, polystyrene spheres monolayer or titanium anodisation. We also attempted to insert multiwall carbon nanotubes in the tantalum oxide matrix. And finally, the last step is the organic modification by molecules containing 3 to 5 phosphonic groups. Then, once these systems elaborated and otpimized, the osteoinductive character is evaluated by measuring the hydroxyapatite growth rate in a simulated body fluid.