The present study aims to appraise the perspectives to increase the national fish production by improving the existing fish production systems, as the traditional fish pond (whedos), in the Ouémé River delta (southern Benin). The first approaches of our investigations show that, on the socio-economic level, the increase in the productivity of the whedos seems necessary to improve the livelihood conditions of the fishermen in the Ouémé Valley. Indeed, with the current mode of management of these whedos, we have observed that the net income per hectare can vary between 182,000 and 572,000 Fcfa. It represents, at the current level, approximately 27 % of the total incomes of fishing per household. However, by artificial stocking with adapted fishes, such as the catfishes Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis, and feeding, the annual outputs from 3 to 36 t ha-1 can be reached according to the stocking densities (from 4 to 24 fish m-3, respectively). The nets incomes generated from such management are rather important and can vary according to the stocking densities from 1,664,000 to 31,675,000 Fcfa (from 4 to 24 fish m-3, respectively). Although the density of 10.5 fish m-3 seemed ideal for the optimization of zootechnical parameters, the search of maximum profit leads us to suggest the higher densities (approximately 24 fish m3) for rearing African catfish in the whedos. Moreover, to improve the knowledge of these catfishes fingerlings production, we evaluated some aspects of the larval rearing (weaning time and stocking density), just as the nutritional effects of various diets, based on soybean or cottonseed meals, in the larvae as well as in the juveniles. It arises from these studies that, the weaning of H. longifilis larvae maintained at the densities from 10 to 25 L-1, is necessary between days 5 and 8 posthatch in order to optimize the zootechnical and economical performances of the rearing. Furthermore, we have observed that soybean meal was more effective than cottonseed meal in the larvae as well as in the juveniles. However, the presence of antinutrients factors, particularly the phytic acid, limit the levels of inclusion of these oilseed meals in the diets, since in juveniles, significant reductions of the body minerals contents, particularly P, Zn and Mn, were observed with the diets containing up to 60 % of these plants ingredients.