This thesis aims at developing an agent-based micro-simulation framework for (large) population evolution and mobility behaviour. More specifically we focus on the agents generation and the traffic simulation parts of the platform, and its application to Belgium. Hence we firstly develop a synthetic population generator whose main characteristics are its sample-free nature, its ability to cope with moderate data inconsistencies and different levels of aggregation. We then generate the traffic demand forecasting with a stochastic and flexible activity-based model relying on weak data requirements. Finally, a traffic simulation is completed by considering the assignment of the generated demand on the road network. We give the initial developments of a strategic agent-based alternative to the conventional simulation-based dynamic traffic assignment models.