The field of ethics dominates a significant part of the philosophical activity in these early years of the 21st century. In this contemporary context, the goal of the author is to demonstrate that both the thesis of the very essence of humanity and that of the unconditional value of any human being — whatever the degree of human vulnerabilities — remain philosophically robust from an evolutionary perspective. In order to achieve this demonstration, the author resorts to a different methodology as opposed to a Kantian a priori (transcendental) argument. A dialectic articulation is built so that the epistemology of Michel Henry and the phenomenology of biology of Hans Jonas may be critically revisited. Such work is made in the light of the Aristotelian theory of hylemorphism, which is restored within a Darwinian framework by Dominique Lambert in his philosophical works. When it is combined with Henry and Jonas’s insights, a contemporary renewal of the “theory of the forms” sheds light on the reasons why behaviors of care toward vulnerable persons in human societies are so important. Indeed, they may be considered as a major sign of the discovery by humans of the dignity of their specifically unaccomplished and vulnerable being.