Unconventional endocytic mechanisms

Henri François Renard, Emmanuel Boucrot

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Endocytosis mediates the uptake of extracellular proteins, micronutrients and transmembrane cell surface proteins. Importantly, many viruses, toxins and bacteria hijack endocytosis to infect cells. The canonical pathway is clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and is active in all eukaryotic cells to support critical house-keeping functions. Unconventional mechanisms of endocytosis exit in parallel of CME, to internalize specific cargoes and support various cellular functions. These clathrin-independent endocytic (CIE) routes use three distinct mechanisms: acute signaling-induced membrane remodeling drives macropinocytosis, activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE), massive endocytosis (MEND) and EGFR non-clathrin endocytosis (EGFR-NCE). Cargo capture and local membrane deformation by cytosolic proteins is used by fast endophilin-mediated endocytosis (FEME), IL-2Rβ endocytosis and ultrafast endocytosis at synapses. Finally, the formation of endocytic pits by clustering of extracellular lipids or cargoes according to the Glycolipid-Lectin (GL-Lect) hypothesis mediates the uptake of SV40 virus, Shiga and cholera toxins, and galectin-clustered receptors by the CLIC/GEEC and the endophilin-A3-mediated CIE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-129
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Opinion in Cell Biology
Volume71
Early online date13 Apr 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Apr 2021

Keywords

  • Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis
  • Cargoes
  • Clathrin
  • Clathrin-independent carriers/GPI-AP-enriched early endosomal compartments (CLIC/GEEC)
  • Clathrin-independent endocytosis
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
  • EGFR Non-Clathrin endocytosis
  • Endocytosis
  • Endophilin-A3/Galectin-8-mediated endocytosis
  • Fast endophilin-mediated endocytosis (FEME)
  • Glycolipid-Lectin hypothesis
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins
  • Interleukin-2 receptor endocytosis
  • Lipids
  • Macropinocytosis
  • Massive Endocytosis
  • Receptors
  • Ultrafast endocytosis

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