TDDFT Investigation of the Raman and Resonant Raman Spectra of Fluorescent Protein Chromophore Models

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The off-resonance and resonant Raman spectra have been simulated for models of fluorescent protein chromophores, those of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, called FP1) and of DsRed (called FP2), which presents a longer conjugated path, with the aim of providing a systematic investigation of structural but also computational aspects. These were performed at the (time-dependent) density functional theory [(TD)DFT] level. The off-resonance intensities have been calculated from the derivatives of the frequency-dependent polarizability with respect to the normal coordinates while the resonant ones have been evaluated using Huang-Rhys factors determined from the gradients of the excitation energies with respect to the normal coordinates. When applied with the M05 meta-GGA exchange-correlation functional, this simple computational scheme can reproduce most of the experimental Raman signatures of FP1 in its protonated and deprotonated forms, the differences of vibrational signatures of the cis (Z) and trans (E) isomers, as well as their changes as a function of the excitation wavelength. On the other hand, testing the predictions made for FP2 would require new experimental work. It was also observed that simulations with methods that inadequately predict the resonant Raman spectra could nevertheless produce a UV-vis absorption spectrum that is quite similar to the one obtained with better methods, once realistic peak broadening has been applied.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3414-3424
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of physical chemistry B
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2 May 2022


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