Size dependences of the diradical character and the second hyperpolarizabilities in dicyclopenta-fused acenes: Relationships with their aromaticity/antiaromaticity

S. Motomura, M. Nakano, H. Fukui, K. Yoneda, T. Kubo, R. Carion, B. Champagne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Using long-range corrected density functional theory, the relationships between the electronic, magnetic, and nonlinear optical properties are drawn for two families of organic compounds, the dicyclopenta-fused acenes (DPAs) and the polyacenes (PAs), containing up to N = 12 fused rings. First, the longitudinal second hyperpolarizability (γ) of singlet DPAs is significantly enhanced with increasing system size, in comparison to PAs. This behavior is associated with an increase in the longitudinal spin polarization between the terminal five-membered rings of DPAs and is consistent with previous studies where γ is maximized for intermediate diradical character. The size dependence of the diradical character is also found to cause a hump in the γ/N evolution for singlet DPAs around N = 8. In fact, in the case of singlet PAs, the diradical characters y and y, the various magnetic properties and the γ/N values vary monotonically with N, whereas for singlet DPAs, the shielding, the magnetizability, and the γ/N values exhibit extrema near N = 8 due to the appearance of transversal spin polarization in the middle six-membered rings in addition to the longitudinal spin polarization between the terminal five-membered rings. Moreover, it is shown that for singlet DPAs the longitudinal spin polarization (characterized by y) is associated with the antiaromaticity (N ≤ 3) and the slight- or non-aromaticity (N ≥ 4) of the terminal five-membered rings, whereas the appearance of transversal spin-polarization (characterized by y ) is associated with the decrease in the aromaticity in the inner six-membered rings as shown for large PAs. Therefore, the exceptional behaviors in singlet DPAs for small N (N <9) are caused by the increase in diradical character y correlated with the anti-aromaticity or the slight-/non-aromaticity of terminal rings and the corresponding emergence of a global aromatic character. Such a relationship between the aromaticity/ antiaromaticity and the diradical character is useful for designing real open-shell NLO molecules through the control of their diradical characters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20575-20583
Number of pages9
JournalPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Issue number46
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2011

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