In 2011, European ruminant flocks were infected by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) leading to transient disease in adult cattle but abortions and congenital deformities in calves, lambs, and goat kids. SBV belonging to the Simbu serogroup (family Bunyaviridae and genus Orthobunyavirus) was first discovered in the same region where bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) emerged 5 years before. Both viruses are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and share several similarities. This paper describes the current knowledge of temporal and geographical spread, molecular virology, transmission and susceptible species, clinical signs, diagnosis, prevention and control, impact on ruminant health, and productivity of SBV infection in Europe, and compares SBV infection with BTV-8 infection in ruminants.
- Schmallenberg virus