Aminopyropheophorbide (APP) is a second generation of photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). We demonstrated that APP strongly absorbed red light and, after being taken up by colon cancer cells (HCT-116 cells), was localized in cytoplasmic and internal membranes but not in mitochondria. The APP-mediated photosensitization was cytotoxic for HCT-116 cells through an induction of apoptosis. Indeed, DNA fragmentation (DNA laddering and terminal deoxyuridine nick-end labeling) and chromatin condensation (4′,6-diamidine-2′-phenylindole staining) could be visualized soon after photosensitization. Because nuclear factor (NF)-κB is involved in the response to many photosensitizers, we also demonstrated its nuclear translocation in two waves: a rapid and transient one, followed by a slow and sustained phase. The NF-κB turned out to be involved in an antiapoptotic response to APP-mediated photosensitization because the HCT-116 cell line expressing the dominant negative mutant of inhibitor-κBα was more sensitive to apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. These data unambiguously show that a membrane-located photosensitizer can lead to effective apoptosis, reinforcing the idea that PDT can be an effective means to eradicate colon cancer cells.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Photochemistry and Photobiology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Oct 1999|