Open-shell characters and second hyperpolarizabilities of one-dimensional graphene nanoflakes composed of trigonal graphene units

Kyohei Yoneda, Masayoshi Nakano, Hitoshi Fukui, Takuya Minami, Yasuteru Shigeta, Takashi Kubo, Edith Botek, Benoit Champagne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The impact of topology on the open-shell characters and the second hyperpolarizabilities (γ) has been addressed for one-dimensional graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) composed of the smallest trigonal graphene (phenalenyl) units. The main results are: 1) These GNFs show not only diradical but also multiradical characters when increasing the number of linked units. 2) GNFs composed of an equivalent number of units can exhibit a wide range of open-shell characters-from nearly closed-shell to pure multiradical characters-depending on the linking pattern of the trigonal units. 3) This wide variation in open-shell characters is explained by their resonance structures and/or by their (HOMO-i)-(LUMO+i) gaps deduced from the orbital correlations. 4) The change in the linking structure of the units can effectively control their open-shell characters as well as their γ values, of which the longitudinal components are significantly enhanced for the singlet GNFs having intermediate open-shell characters. 5) Singlet alternately linked (AL) systems present intermediate multiradical characters even in the case of a large number of units, which creates a significant enhancement of γ with increasing the size, whereas nonalternately linked (NAL) systems, which present pure multiradical characters, possess much smaller γ values. Finally 6) by switching from the singlet to the highest spin states, the γ values of NAL systems hardly change, whereas those of AL systems exhibit large reductions. These fascinating structure-property relationships between the topology of the GNFs, their open-shell characters, and their γ values not only deepen the understanding of open-shell characters of GNFs but aim also at stimulating further design studies to achieve giant NLO responses based on open-shell graphene-like materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1697-1707
Number of pages11
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jun 2011


  • computational chemistry
  • graphene
  • nonlinear optics
  • radicals
  • spin


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