On the origin of puppies: Breeding and selling procedures relevant for canine behavioural development

Pierre Alexandre Dendoncker, Tiny De Keuster, Claire Diederich, Jeroen Dewulf, Christel P.H. Moons

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The success of the dog as a companion animal has undeniably led to a shift in dog breeding practices. While effects of inbreeding or large-scale breeding have given rise to numerous studies about potentially related health issues, it remains unclear to what extent behavioural development of dogs is influenced. By investigating the environment of puppies while at the breeder, the authors aimed to make an inventory of current practices regarding management, socialisation and environmental learning and subsequently to identify potential differences between breeder types. The cross-sectional study, conducted during 2016, revealed considerable variability in environment among dog breeders. Small-scale breeders, and especially occasional breeders (less than 10 adult dogs on-site) provided most enrichment, both social and non-social, by, for instance, providing more outdoor access for pregnant dams and puppies or by providing access to visitors more freely. Environmental stimuli were less controlled in occasional breeders, raising the debate about quantity versus quality of stimuli at a young age. Large-scale breeders declared to screen potential owners less intensely and time to advise them was limited. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that compares a large number of environmental factors between the different dog breeding categories.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
JournalVeterinary Record
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jun 2019


  • behaviour
  • canine
  • dog breeders
  • environmental stimuli
  • socialisation


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