Nutritional requirements and feeding of broodstock and early life stages of eurasian perch and pikeperch

Patrick Kestemont, Emilie Henrotte

Research output: Contribution in Book/Catalog/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Up to date, the nutritional requirements of breeders and early life stages of European percid fi shes, Perca fl uviatilis and Sander lucioperca, have not been defi ned precisely, and, in fi sh farms, breeders are still relying on the regular supply of forage fi sh. It has been demonstrated in both species that the feeding conditions of broodstock largely infl uence the quality of gametes (especially in females) and hatched larvae. The best results, in terms of hatching rate and survival to challenge tests during the fi rst days post-hatching, have been obtained when breeders were fed on forage fi sh, either as unique feed source or in combination with dry feed. Experimental diets, based on a suitable supply of phospholipids (PLs) and adequate ratio of essential long chain fatty acids (docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids) have been used successfully in Eurasian perch breeders to produce high quality eggs and larvae, comparable to those obtained from perch fed forage fi sh. Fatty acid composition of broodstock diet signifi cantly infl uenced the fatty acid composition of eggs. On the other contrary, none of the characteristics of the sperm were signifi cantly modifi ed by the HUFAs ratio, neither in terms of sperm volume and density, spermatozoa motility and velocity, nor in terms of seminal plasma osmolality. During the fi rst weeks of larval rearing, Artemia nauplii are still currently used as starter feed for both Eurasian perch and pikeperch larvae. Enrichment of nauplii with HUFA has proved to be effi cient in pikeperch but not in Eurasian perch. At the end of feeding trials with pikeperch larvae, highly significant correlations were achieved between dietary ascorbic acid content and the ascorbic acid content in larval carcass or the reduction of larval deformity. Based on commercial larval feed formulated for marine or freshwater fi sh, it has been shown that the freshwater feed (containing low Ca/P ratio) was more suitable for pikeperch larvae and juveniles than marine fi sh diet, in terms of growth, survival and resistance to stress test. Recently, some experimental dry diets varying by their phospholipid content have been tested. The highest survival and growth rates of pikeperch post-larvae (first fed with Artemia nauplii) were obtained in groups fed 9.5 % of PLs but higher levels still need to be tested, eventually at an earlier stage of development.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiology and Culture of Percid Fishes: Principles and Practices
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Number of pages26
ISBN (Print)9789401772273, 9789401772266
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • Broodstock
  • Eurasian perch
  • Larval feeding
  • Nutritional requirements
  • Zander


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