Antibodies were prepared against glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Inhibition of the enzyme activity was obtained with anti-Gpx and anti-SOD antibodies but not with anti-CAT antibodies. The antibodies were then injected into human fibroblasts and bovine chondrocytes in culture either under normal conditions or under 1 atm of oxygen. The injected anti-Gpx and anti-SOD antibodies increased the mortality rate of the fibroblasts incubated under 1 atm of oxygen. However, when cells were incubated under normal atmosphere, anti-Gpx antibodies inhibited the division while anti-SOD antibodies increased this capacity. Anti-Gpx antibodies injected into chondrocytes decreased their viability. Injection of control antiserum had no effect. These data stress the primary importance of Gpx as antioxidant under all conditions and the relative efficiency of SOD according to the balance between the radical production and the activity of the other antioxidant systems.