Magnetically-induced current density investigation in carbohelicenes and azahelicenes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A computational study of the magnetically-induced current (MIC) density has been carried out for a variety of ortho fused polycyclic aromatic molecules at the density functional theory level with the gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method. With this method, the aromatic character of each ring in a homologous series of carbohelicenes with an increasing number of fused benzene rings is assessed and compared with other aromaticity criteria such as the Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift [NICS(0), NICSzz(0)] and Bond Length Alternation (BLA) parameters. All criteria indicate that the two outer rings are the most aromatic ones [i.e. higher induced current, more negative NICS(0) and NICSzz(0) values, and smaller BLA values]. For the large helicenes (n > 10), the current drops along the following four rings and then rises again. Additionally, we have proven that this behavior is not due to a difference of the local magnetic field coming from a difference of orientation of the ring with respect to the external magnetic field (oriented along the helical axis). Upon fusing additional benzene rings to form hexa-peri-hexabenzo[7]helicene, some rings (B, D, and F) are a lot less aromatic (even non-aromatic) than the others. The NICS(0) and NICSzz(0) values exaggerate this behavior because they are all positive values, which is a signature of antiaromaticity. Then, when substituting one, three, or four benzene rings with pyrrole ones to form mono-aza-[7]-helicene, tri-aza-[7]-helicene, and tetra-aza-[7]-helicene, remarkable changes in the electronic structures of the helicenes are observed. Indeed, the induced currents are always smaller in the pyrrole rings than in the benzene ones. This has been further investigated using the streamline and the color map representations, which indicate that the diatropic current density passing through the plane cutting the C-N bonds in the pyrrole rings is stronger but is more localized than the current density passing through the plane cutting the C-C bonds in the benzene rings. This gives a positive but smaller total induced current for the pyrrole rings than for the benzene ones. For these systems, the NICS(0) and even more the NICSzz(0) values are not fully reliable to probe the local aromaticity, contrary to the induced current. Indeed, the NICSzz(0) values for the tri-aza-[7]-helicene molecule range from -14.23 to 1.14 ppm, which cannot lead to the same conclusion as the induced current values (10.03 to 12.87 nA T-1).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14678-14691
Number of pages14
JournalPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Volume21
Issue number27
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Induced currents
Benzene
Current density
Pyrroles
current density
rings
benzene
pyrroles
Bond length
Magnetic fields
alternations
Molecules
Chemical shift
Gages
Electronic structure
Density functional theory
Color
magnetic fields
chemical equilibrium
molecules

Cite this

@article{cf1a4101398648a9aec6a5a5f6f02f15,
title = "Magnetically-induced current density investigation in carbohelicenes and azahelicenes",
abstract = "A computational study of the magnetically-induced current (MIC) density has been carried out for a variety of ortho fused polycyclic aromatic molecules at the density functional theory level with the gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method. With this method, the aromatic character of each ring in a homologous series of carbohelicenes with an increasing number of fused benzene rings is assessed and compared with other aromaticity criteria such as the Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift [NICS(0), NICSzz(0)] and Bond Length Alternation (BLA) parameters. All criteria indicate that the two outer rings are the most aromatic ones [i.e. higher induced current, more negative NICS(0) and NICSzz(0) values, and smaller BLA values]. For the large helicenes (n > 10), the current drops along the following four rings and then rises again. Additionally, we have proven that this behavior is not due to a difference of the local magnetic field coming from a difference of orientation of the ring with respect to the external magnetic field (oriented along the helical axis). Upon fusing additional benzene rings to form hexa-peri-hexabenzo[7]helicene, some rings (B, D, and F) are a lot less aromatic (even non-aromatic) than the others. The NICS(0) and NICSzz(0) values exaggerate this behavior because they are all positive values, which is a signature of antiaromaticity. Then, when substituting one, three, or four benzene rings with pyrrole ones to form mono-aza-[7]-helicene, tri-aza-[7]-helicene, and tetra-aza-[7]-helicene, remarkable changes in the electronic structures of the helicenes are observed. Indeed, the induced currents are always smaller in the pyrrole rings than in the benzene ones. This has been further investigated using the streamline and the color map representations, which indicate that the diatropic current density passing through the plane cutting the C-N bonds in the pyrrole rings is stronger but is more localized than the current density passing through the plane cutting the C-C bonds in the benzene rings. This gives a positive but smaller total induced current for the pyrrole rings than for the benzene ones. For these systems, the NICS(0) and even more the NICSzz(0) values are not fully reliable to probe the local aromaticity, contrary to the induced current. Indeed, the NICSzz(0) values for the tri-aza-[7]-helicene molecule range from -14.23 to 1.14 ppm, which cannot lead to the same conclusion as the induced current values (10.03 to 12.87 nA T-1).",
author = "Emna Cherni and Beno{\^i}t Champagne and Sameh Ayadi and Vincent Li{\'e}geois",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
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pages = "14678--14691",
journal = "Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP",
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Magnetically-induced current density investigation in carbohelicenes and azahelicenes. / Cherni, Emna; Champagne, Benoît; Ayadi, Sameh; Liégeois, Vincent.

In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, No. 27, 01.01.2019, p. 14678-14691.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Magnetically-induced current density investigation in carbohelicenes and azahelicenes

AU - Cherni, Emna

AU - Champagne, Benoît

AU - Ayadi, Sameh

AU - Liégeois, Vincent

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - A computational study of the magnetically-induced current (MIC) density has been carried out for a variety of ortho fused polycyclic aromatic molecules at the density functional theory level with the gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method. With this method, the aromatic character of each ring in a homologous series of carbohelicenes with an increasing number of fused benzene rings is assessed and compared with other aromaticity criteria such as the Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift [NICS(0), NICSzz(0)] and Bond Length Alternation (BLA) parameters. All criteria indicate that the two outer rings are the most aromatic ones [i.e. higher induced current, more negative NICS(0) and NICSzz(0) values, and smaller BLA values]. For the large helicenes (n > 10), the current drops along the following four rings and then rises again. Additionally, we have proven that this behavior is not due to a difference of the local magnetic field coming from a difference of orientation of the ring with respect to the external magnetic field (oriented along the helical axis). Upon fusing additional benzene rings to form hexa-peri-hexabenzo[7]helicene, some rings (B, D, and F) are a lot less aromatic (even non-aromatic) than the others. The NICS(0) and NICSzz(0) values exaggerate this behavior because they are all positive values, which is a signature of antiaromaticity. Then, when substituting one, three, or four benzene rings with pyrrole ones to form mono-aza-[7]-helicene, tri-aza-[7]-helicene, and tetra-aza-[7]-helicene, remarkable changes in the electronic structures of the helicenes are observed. Indeed, the induced currents are always smaller in the pyrrole rings than in the benzene ones. This has been further investigated using the streamline and the color map representations, which indicate that the diatropic current density passing through the plane cutting the C-N bonds in the pyrrole rings is stronger but is more localized than the current density passing through the plane cutting the C-C bonds in the benzene rings. This gives a positive but smaller total induced current for the pyrrole rings than for the benzene ones. For these systems, the NICS(0) and even more the NICSzz(0) values are not fully reliable to probe the local aromaticity, contrary to the induced current. Indeed, the NICSzz(0) values for the tri-aza-[7]-helicene molecule range from -14.23 to 1.14 ppm, which cannot lead to the same conclusion as the induced current values (10.03 to 12.87 nA T-1).

AB - A computational study of the magnetically-induced current (MIC) density has been carried out for a variety of ortho fused polycyclic aromatic molecules at the density functional theory level with the gauge including magnetically induced current (GIMIC) method. With this method, the aromatic character of each ring in a homologous series of carbohelicenes with an increasing number of fused benzene rings is assessed and compared with other aromaticity criteria such as the Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift [NICS(0), NICSzz(0)] and Bond Length Alternation (BLA) parameters. All criteria indicate that the two outer rings are the most aromatic ones [i.e. higher induced current, more negative NICS(0) and NICSzz(0) values, and smaller BLA values]. For the large helicenes (n > 10), the current drops along the following four rings and then rises again. Additionally, we have proven that this behavior is not due to a difference of the local magnetic field coming from a difference of orientation of the ring with respect to the external magnetic field (oriented along the helical axis). Upon fusing additional benzene rings to form hexa-peri-hexabenzo[7]helicene, some rings (B, D, and F) are a lot less aromatic (even non-aromatic) than the others. The NICS(0) and NICSzz(0) values exaggerate this behavior because they are all positive values, which is a signature of antiaromaticity. Then, when substituting one, three, or four benzene rings with pyrrole ones to form mono-aza-[7]-helicene, tri-aza-[7]-helicene, and tetra-aza-[7]-helicene, remarkable changes in the electronic structures of the helicenes are observed. Indeed, the induced currents are always smaller in the pyrrole rings than in the benzene ones. This has been further investigated using the streamline and the color map representations, which indicate that the diatropic current density passing through the plane cutting the C-N bonds in the pyrrole rings is stronger but is more localized than the current density passing through the plane cutting the C-C bonds in the benzene rings. This gives a positive but smaller total induced current for the pyrrole rings than for the benzene ones. For these systems, the NICS(0) and even more the NICSzz(0) values are not fully reliable to probe the local aromaticity, contrary to the induced current. Indeed, the NICSzz(0) values for the tri-aza-[7]-helicene molecule range from -14.23 to 1.14 ppm, which cannot lead to the same conclusion as the induced current values (10.03 to 12.87 nA T-1).

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