Cardiovascular diseases represent a major issue in terms of morbidity and mortality for dialysis patients. This morbidity is due to the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in these patients. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by key players such as monocytes, macrophages, or oxidized LDLs. Monocytes-macrophages are classified into subsets of polarized cells, with M1 and M2 macrophages considered, respectively, as pro-and anti-inflammatory. (1) Methods: The monocyte subsets and phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. These data were completed by the quantification of plasma M-CSF, IL-8, CRP, Mox-LDLs, Apo-B, Apo-AI, chloro-tyrosine, and homocitrulline concentrations. The statistical differences and associations between two continuous variables were assessed using the Mann–Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient, respectively. (2) Results: Hemodialyzed patients showed a significant increase in their concentrations of CRP, M-CSF, and IL-8 (inflammation biomarkers), as well as chloro-tyrosine and homocitrulline (myeloperoxidase-associated oxidative stress biomarkers). Moreover, we observed a higher percentage of M2 monocytes in the plasma of hemodialysis patients as compared to the controls. (3) Conclusions: Our data suggest that oxidative stress and an inflammatory environment, which is amplified in hemodialysis patients, seems to favor an increase in the concentration of circulating M-CSF, therefore leading to an increase in M2 polarization among circulating monocytes.