Induction of a chloracne phenotype in an epidermal equivalent model by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is dependent on aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and is not reproduced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor knock down

Alison R. Forrester, Martina S. Elias, Emma L. Woodward, Mark Graham, Faith M. Williams, Nick J. Reynolds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and causes chloracne in humans. The pathogenesis and role of AhR in chloracne remains incompletely understood. Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms contributing to the development of the chloracne-like phenotype in a human epidermal equivalent model and identify potential biomarkers. Methods: Using primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), we studied AhR activation by XRE-luciferase, AhR degradation and CYP1A1 induction. We treated epidermal equivalents with high affinity TCDD or two non-chloracnegens: β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) and 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). Using Western blotting and immunochemistry for filaggrin (FLG), involucrin (INV) and transglutaminase-1 (TGM-1), we compared the effects of the ligands on keratinocyte differentiation and development of the chloracne-like phenotype by H&E. Results: In NHEKs, activation of an XRE-luciferase and CYP1A1 protein induction correlated with ligand binding affinity: TCDD. >. β-NF. >. ITE. AhR degradation was induced by all ligands. In epidermal equivalents, TCDD induced a chloracne-like phenotype, whereas β-NF or ITE did not. All three ligands induced involucrin and TGM-1 protein expression in epidermal equivalents whereas FLG protein expression decreased following treatment with TCDD and β-NF. Inhibition of AhR by α-NF blocked TCDD-induced AhR activation in NHEKs and blocked phenotypic changes in epidermal equivalents; however, AhR knock down did not reproduce the phenotype. Conclusion: Ligand-induced CYP1A1 and AhR degradation did not correlate with their chloracnegenic potential, indicating that neither CYP1A1 nor AhR are suitable biomarkers. Mechanistic studies showed that the TCDD-induced chloracne-like phenotype depends on AhR activation whereas AhR knock down did not appear sufficient to induce the phenotype.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-22
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Dermatological Science
Volume73
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • β-Naphthoflavone
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor
  • Epidermal equivalent
  • ITE
  • Keratinocyte
  • TCDD

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Induction of a chloracne phenotype in an epidermal equivalent model by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is dependent on aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and is not reproduced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor knock down'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this