The heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is an autocrine/paracrine keratinocyte growth factor, which binds to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family and plays a critical role during the re-epithelialization of cutaneous wound by stimulating the keratinocytes proliferation and migration. In this study, cellular stressing condition in autocrine cultures of human keratinocytes was induced by cholesterol depletion using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD). MβCD treatment induces the expression and the release of HB-EGF. By analysis of the culture media, large amounts of cellular ATP were measured particularly after 1 h of MβCD treatment. To investigate whether ATP contributes to the expression of HB-EGF, the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, ATP-γ-S, was used to mimic the extracellular ATP released. We report that keratinocytes stimulated with ATP-γ-S induce HB-EGF expression and activate EGFR and ERK1/2. Using an antagonist of P2 purinergic receptors, we demonstrate that HB-EGF synthesis induced by lipid rafts disruption is dependent on ATP interaction with P2 purinergic receptors. Moreover, our data suggest that both MAPKs p38 and ERK1/2 are involved together or independently in the regulation of HB-EGF gene expression. These findings provide new insight into the signaling pathway by which HB-EGF is expressed after lipid rafts disruption. In summary, after lipid raft disruption, keratinocytes release large amount of extracellular ATP. ATP induces HB-EGF synthesis and release by interacting with the P2 purinergic receptor and through p38 and ERK1/2 signaling in response to a challenging environment. A release of ATP acts as an early stress response in keratinocytes.
Giltaire, S., Lambert, S., & Poumay, Y. (2011). HB-EGF synthesis and release induced by cholesterol depletion of human epidermal keratinocytes is controlled by extracellular ATP and involves both p38 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 226(6), 1651-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.22496