One of the most interesting features of graphene is the rich physics set up by the various nanostructures it may adopt. The planar structure of graphene makes this material ideal for patterning at the nanoscale. The breathtakingly fast evolution of research on graphene growth and preparation methods has made possible the preparation of samples with arbitrary sizes. Available sample production techniques, combined with the right patterning tools, can be used to tailor the graphene sheet into functional nanostructures, even whole electronic circuits. This paper is a review of the existing graphene patterning techniques and potential applications of related lithographic methods. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.