Experimental measurements validate the use of the binary encounter approximation model to accurately compute proton induced dose and radiolysis enhancement from gold nanoparticles

Félicien Hespeels, Stephane Lucas, Tijani Tabarrant, Emanuele Scifoni, Michael Kraemer, Gregoire Chêne, David Strivay, Hoang N Tran, Anne-Catherine Heuskin

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Abstract

In protontherapy, it has been suggested that nanoparticles of high-Z material like gold (GNP) could be used as radiosensitizers. The origin of this enhancement phenomenon for proton radiation is not yet well understood and additional mechanistic insights are required. Previous works have highlighted the good capabilities of TRAX to reproduce secondary electron emission from gold material. Therefore, TRAX cross sections obtained with the binary encounter approximation (BEA) model for proton ionization were implemented within Geant4 for gold material. Based on the TRAX cross sections, improved Geant4 simulations have been developed to investigate the energy deposition and radical species production around a spherical gold nanoparticle (5 and 10 nm in diameter) placed in a water volume during proton irradiation. Simulations were performed for incident 2 MeV proton. The dose enhancement factor and the radiolysis enhancement factor were quantified. Results obtained with the BEA model were compared with results obtained with condensed-history models. Experimental irradiation of 200 nm gold films were performed to validate the secondary electron emission reproduction capabilities of physical models used in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. TRAX simulations reproduced the experimental backscattered electron energy spectrum from gold film with better agreement than Geant4. Results on gold film obtained with the BEA model enabled to estimate the electron emission from GNPs. Results obtained in our study tend to support that the use of the BEA discrete model leads to a significant increase of the dose in the near vicinity of GNPs (<20 nm), while condensed history models used in Geant4 seem to overestimate the dose and the number of chemical species for increasing distances from the GNP. Based on discrete BEA model results, no enhancement effect due to secondary electron emitted from the GNP is expected if the GNP is not in close proximity to key cellular functional elements (DNA, mitochondria…).

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages19
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Volume64
Issue number6
Early online date2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Gold
Nanoparticles
Protons
Electrons
History
Reproduction
Mitochondria
Radiation
Water
DNA

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title = "Experimental measurements validate the use of the binary encounter approximation model to accurately compute proton induced dose and radiolysis enhancement from gold nanoparticles",
abstract = "In protontherapy, it has been suggested that nanoparticles of high-Z material like gold (GNP) could be used as radiosensitizers. The origin of this enhancement phenomenon for proton radiation is not yet well understood and additional mechanistic insights are required. Previous works have highlighted the good capabilities of TRAX to reproduce secondary electron emission from gold material. Therefore, TRAX cross sections obtained with the binary encounter approximation (BEA) model for proton ionization were implemented within Geant4 for gold material. Based on the TRAX cross sections, improved Geant4 simulations have been developed to investigate the energy deposition and radical species production around a spherical gold nanoparticle (5 and 10 nm in diameter) placed in a water volume during proton irradiation. Simulations were performed for incident 2 MeV proton. The dose enhancement factor and the radiolysis enhancement factor were quantified. Results obtained with the BEA model were compared with results obtained with condensed-history models. Experimental irradiation of 200 nm gold films were performed to validate the secondary electron emission reproduction capabilities of physical models used in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. TRAX simulations reproduced the experimental backscattered electron energy spectrum from gold film with better agreement than Geant4. Results on gold film obtained with the BEA model enabled to estimate the electron emission from GNPs. Results obtained in our study tend to support that the use of the BEA discrete model leads to a significant increase of the dose in the near vicinity of GNPs (<20 nm), while condensed history models used in Geant4 seem to overestimate the dose and the number of chemical species for increasing distances from the GNP. Based on discrete BEA model results, no enhancement effect due to secondary electron emitted from the GNP is expected if the GNP is not in close proximity to key cellular functional elements (DNA, mitochondria…).",
author = "F{\'e}licien Hespeels and Stephane Lucas and Tijani Tabarrant and Emanuele Scifoni and Michael Kraemer and Gregoire Ch{\^e}ne and David Strivay and Tran, {Hoang N} and Anne-Catherine Heuskin",
note = "{\circledC} 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.",
year = "2019",
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language = "English",
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journal = "Physics in Medicine and Biology",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Experimental measurements validate the use of the binary encounter approximation model to accurately compute proton induced dose and radiolysis enhancement from gold nanoparticles

AU - Hespeels, Félicien

AU - Lucas, Stephane

AU - Tabarrant, Tijani

AU - Scifoni, Emanuele

AU - Kraemer, Michael

AU - Chêne, Gregoire

AU - Strivay, David

AU - Tran, Hoang N

AU - Heuskin, Anne-Catherine

N1 - © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - In protontherapy, it has been suggested that nanoparticles of high-Z material like gold (GNP) could be used as radiosensitizers. The origin of this enhancement phenomenon for proton radiation is not yet well understood and additional mechanistic insights are required. Previous works have highlighted the good capabilities of TRAX to reproduce secondary electron emission from gold material. Therefore, TRAX cross sections obtained with the binary encounter approximation (BEA) model for proton ionization were implemented within Geant4 for gold material. Based on the TRAX cross sections, improved Geant4 simulations have been developed to investigate the energy deposition and radical species production around a spherical gold nanoparticle (5 and 10 nm in diameter) placed in a water volume during proton irradiation. Simulations were performed for incident 2 MeV proton. The dose enhancement factor and the radiolysis enhancement factor were quantified. Results obtained with the BEA model were compared with results obtained with condensed-history models. Experimental irradiation of 200 nm gold films were performed to validate the secondary electron emission reproduction capabilities of physical models used in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. TRAX simulations reproduced the experimental backscattered electron energy spectrum from gold film with better agreement than Geant4. Results on gold film obtained with the BEA model enabled to estimate the electron emission from GNPs. Results obtained in our study tend to support that the use of the BEA discrete model leads to a significant increase of the dose in the near vicinity of GNPs (<20 nm), while condensed history models used in Geant4 seem to overestimate the dose and the number of chemical species for increasing distances from the GNP. Based on discrete BEA model results, no enhancement effect due to secondary electron emitted from the GNP is expected if the GNP is not in close proximity to key cellular functional elements (DNA, mitochondria…).

AB - In protontherapy, it has been suggested that nanoparticles of high-Z material like gold (GNP) could be used as radiosensitizers. The origin of this enhancement phenomenon for proton radiation is not yet well understood and additional mechanistic insights are required. Previous works have highlighted the good capabilities of TRAX to reproduce secondary electron emission from gold material. Therefore, TRAX cross sections obtained with the binary encounter approximation (BEA) model for proton ionization were implemented within Geant4 for gold material. Based on the TRAX cross sections, improved Geant4 simulations have been developed to investigate the energy deposition and radical species production around a spherical gold nanoparticle (5 and 10 nm in diameter) placed in a water volume during proton irradiation. Simulations were performed for incident 2 MeV proton. The dose enhancement factor and the radiolysis enhancement factor were quantified. Results obtained with the BEA model were compared with results obtained with condensed-history models. Experimental irradiation of 200 nm gold films were performed to validate the secondary electron emission reproduction capabilities of physical models used in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. TRAX simulations reproduced the experimental backscattered electron energy spectrum from gold film with better agreement than Geant4. Results on gold film obtained with the BEA model enabled to estimate the electron emission from GNPs. Results obtained in our study tend to support that the use of the BEA discrete model leads to a significant increase of the dose in the near vicinity of GNPs (<20 nm), while condensed history models used in Geant4 seem to overestimate the dose and the number of chemical species for increasing distances from the GNP. Based on discrete BEA model results, no enhancement effect due to secondary electron emitted from the GNP is expected if the GNP is not in close proximity to key cellular functional elements (DNA, mitochondria…).

U2 - 10.1088/1361-6560/ab0516

DO - 10.1088/1361-6560/ab0516

M3 - Article

VL - 64

JO - Physics in Medicine and Biology

JF - Physics in Medicine and Biology

SN - 0031-9155

IS - 6

ER -