The crystal packing effects upon the static and dynamic first hyperpolarizability of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) clusters have been addressed at the TDHF/AM1 level. Due to electrostatic interactions, in 1-D arrays of MNA unit cells extending along the a crystallographic axis, the effective hyperpolarizability strongly increases whereas stacking unit cells along the b or c axes leads to a reduction of these quantities. These effects are magnified in the case of frequency-dependent quantifies. The first hyperpolarizability variations can mostly be related to bathochromatic and hypsochromatic shifts as well as to changes in transition dipole moments of the low-energy excited states that dominate the UV/visible absorption spectra. From calculations performed at the CIS/INDO/S level of approximation, these dominant excited states present an important intramolecular charge transfer character and bathochromatic (hypsochromatic) shifts are associated with increase (decrease) of the transition dipole moments. In addition, a large number of intermolecular charge-transfer excited states have been detected. In the small MNA aggregates as well as in clusters extending only along the b or c crystallographic axes, these excited states possess small transition dipole moments. On the other hand, when stacking MNA unit cells along the a axis the electrostatic interactions induce a decrease of the excitation energies and an increase of the transition dipole moments of these intermolecular charge transfer states. As a consequence, they account for a nonnegligible contribution to the first hyperpolarizability.
- Charge transfer
- Electronic excitation energies
- First hyperpolarizability
- Molecular crystal