The effect of nonionic surfactant structure and concentration on the structural and textural properties, as well as on morphology of titania-doped YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) (TYZ) prepared by the citrate polymeric method is investigated in order to design the optimal conditions for the synthesis of highly structured materials. The calcined powders were characterized by wide- and small-angle X-ray diffraction (wa-XRD and sa-XRD), N adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mesoporous ceramic materials have been obtained when 8 vol% alkyl poly(oxyethylene) surfactants were added in the reaction mixture, samples having a BET surface area of about 106 m g.
Cioatera, N., Pârvulescu, V., & Su, B-L. (2010). Effect of nonionic surfactants on structure, texture, and morphology of titania-doped YSZ. Materials Chemistry and Physics , 120(2-3), 697-701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2009.12.021