Determination of functionalization rate of modified carbon nanotubes using resonant nuclear reactions

Mourad Yedji, Sami Abou Rich, Julien Amadou, Jean-Jacques Pireaux, Guy Terwagne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized by exposure to a RF vacuum plasma containing monomers (AllylAmine (AA), Methyl MethAcrylate (MMA), Styrene and Phenyl Glucidyl Ether (PGE). The Plasma Polymer modified CNTs (PPAA-CNT, PPMMA-CNT, PPS-CNT, and PPPGE-CNT) were characterized by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and revel that polymers were wrapped on CNTs. Resonant nuclear reactions (RNRA) were used to quantify nitrogen thanks to 14N (alpha, p0) 17O and hydrogen with H (15N,alpha-gamma) 12C. Both techniques have been coupled with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) for confirmation of nitrogen quantification and also for detection of eventual impurities. We show that all functionalized CNTs present considerable hydrogen concentration, however only functionalized plasma polymer CNTs with AA (PPAA-CNTs) show nitrogen peak due to the presence of amine (NH2) groups. During the hydrogen analysis, all samples were drastically affected by hydrogen desorption under ion beam irradiation; this behaviour has been rigorously corrected. The analysis of polymerized CNTs shows concentration varying from 22 % to 42 % of hydrogen and only PPAA-CNTs presents 3.5 % of nitrogen. The RBS measurements confirmed the 14N characterization. These results allowed us to determine for the first time in terms of atomic contribution the functionalization rate for each functionalized CNT.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMaterials science and engineering C
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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Carbon Nanotubes
Nuclear reactions
nuclear reactions
Hydrogen
Carbon nanotubes
carbon nanotubes
Nitrogen
Allylamine
Polymers
Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy
Plasmas
Styrene
Methacrylates
hydrogen
nitrogen
Ion beams
Amines
Desorption
Monomers
Irradiation

Keywords

  • RBS
  • functionalization rate
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • RNRA
  • cross section

Cite this

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title = "Determination of functionalization rate of modified carbon nanotubes using resonant nuclear reactions",
abstract = "Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized by exposure to a RF vacuum plasma containing monomers (AllylAmine (AA), Methyl MethAcrylate (MMA), Styrene and Phenyl Glucidyl Ether (PGE). The Plasma Polymer modified CNTs (PPAA-CNT, PPMMA-CNT, PPS-CNT, and PPPGE-CNT) were characterized by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and revel that polymers were wrapped on CNTs. Resonant nuclear reactions (RNRA) were used to quantify nitrogen thanks to 14N (alpha, p0) 17O and hydrogen with H (15N,alpha-gamma) 12C. Both techniques have been coupled with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) for confirmation of nitrogen quantification and also for detection of eventual impurities. We show that all functionalized CNTs present considerable hydrogen concentration, however only functionalized plasma polymer CNTs with AA (PPAA-CNTs) show nitrogen peak due to the presence of amine (NH2) groups. During the hydrogen analysis, all samples were drastically affected by hydrogen desorption under ion beam irradiation; this behaviour has been rigorously corrected. The analysis of polymerized CNTs shows concentration varying from 22 {\%} to 42 {\%} of hydrogen and only PPAA-CNTs presents 3.5 {\%} of nitrogen. The RBS measurements confirmed the 14N characterization. These results allowed us to determine for the first time in terms of atomic contribution the functionalization rate for each functionalized CNT.",
keywords = "RBS, functionalization rate, Carbon nanotubes, RNRA, cross section",
author = "Mourad Yedji and {Abou Rich}, Sami and Julien Amadou and Jean-Jacques Pireaux and Guy Terwagne",
year = "2010",
language = "English",
journal = "Materials science and engineering C",
issn = "0928-4931",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Determination of functionalization rate of modified carbon nanotubes using resonant nuclear reactions

AU - Yedji, Mourad

AU - Abou Rich, Sami

AU - Amadou, Julien

AU - Pireaux, Jean-Jacques

AU - Terwagne, Guy

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized by exposure to a RF vacuum plasma containing monomers (AllylAmine (AA), Methyl MethAcrylate (MMA), Styrene and Phenyl Glucidyl Ether (PGE). The Plasma Polymer modified CNTs (PPAA-CNT, PPMMA-CNT, PPS-CNT, and PPPGE-CNT) were characterized by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and revel that polymers were wrapped on CNTs. Resonant nuclear reactions (RNRA) were used to quantify nitrogen thanks to 14N (alpha, p0) 17O and hydrogen with H (15N,alpha-gamma) 12C. Both techniques have been coupled with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) for confirmation of nitrogen quantification and also for detection of eventual impurities. We show that all functionalized CNTs present considerable hydrogen concentration, however only functionalized plasma polymer CNTs with AA (PPAA-CNTs) show nitrogen peak due to the presence of amine (NH2) groups. During the hydrogen analysis, all samples were drastically affected by hydrogen desorption under ion beam irradiation; this behaviour has been rigorously corrected. The analysis of polymerized CNTs shows concentration varying from 22 % to 42 % of hydrogen and only PPAA-CNTs presents 3.5 % of nitrogen. The RBS measurements confirmed the 14N characterization. These results allowed us to determine for the first time in terms of atomic contribution the functionalization rate for each functionalized CNT.

AB - Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized by exposure to a RF vacuum plasma containing monomers (AllylAmine (AA), Methyl MethAcrylate (MMA), Styrene and Phenyl Glucidyl Ether (PGE). The Plasma Polymer modified CNTs (PPAA-CNT, PPMMA-CNT, PPS-CNT, and PPPGE-CNT) were characterized by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and revel that polymers were wrapped on CNTs. Resonant nuclear reactions (RNRA) were used to quantify nitrogen thanks to 14N (alpha, p0) 17O and hydrogen with H (15N,alpha-gamma) 12C. Both techniques have been coupled with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) for confirmation of nitrogen quantification and also for detection of eventual impurities. We show that all functionalized CNTs present considerable hydrogen concentration, however only functionalized plasma polymer CNTs with AA (PPAA-CNTs) show nitrogen peak due to the presence of amine (NH2) groups. During the hydrogen analysis, all samples were drastically affected by hydrogen desorption under ion beam irradiation; this behaviour has been rigorously corrected. The analysis of polymerized CNTs shows concentration varying from 22 % to 42 % of hydrogen and only PPAA-CNTs presents 3.5 % of nitrogen. The RBS measurements confirmed the 14N characterization. These results allowed us to determine for the first time in terms of atomic contribution the functionalization rate for each functionalized CNT.

KW - RBS

KW - functionalization rate

KW - Carbon nanotubes

KW - RNRA

KW - cross section

M3 - Article

JO - Materials science and engineering C

JF - Materials science and engineering C

SN - 0928-4931

ER -