Deadly anchor: Gender bias under Russian colonization of Kazakhstan

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    We study the impact of a large-scale economic crisis on gender equality, using historical data from Kazakhstan in the late 19th-early 20th century. We focus on sex ratios (number of women per man) in Kazakh population between 1898 and 1908, in the midst of large-scale Russian in-migration into Kazakhstan that caused a sharp exogenous increase in land pressure. The resulting severe economic crisis made the nomadic organization of the Kazakh economy unsustainable and forced most Kazakh households into sedentary agriculture. Using a large novel dataset constructed from Russian colonial expedition materials, we document a low and worsening sex ratio (in particular, among poor households) between 1898 and 1908. The theoretical hypothesis that garners most support is that of excess female mortality in poorer households (especially among adults), driven by gender discrimination under the increasing pressure for scarce food resources.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)399-422
    Number of pages24
    JournalExplorations in Economic History
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2012


    • sex ratio
    • excess female mortality
    • nomadic economy
    • Kazakhstan

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