Background: Allergic rhinitis includes a certain degree of autonomic imbalance. However, no information is available on how daily changes in allergy burden affect autonomic imbalance. We aimed to estimate associations between daily allergy burden (allergy symptoms and mood) and daily heart rate characteristics (resting heart rate and sample entropy, both biomarkers of autonomic balance) of adults with allergic rhinitis, based on real-world measurements with a wearable telemonitoring system. Methods: Adults with a tree pollen allergy used a smartphone application to self-report daily allergy symptoms (score 0–44) and mood (score 0–4), and a Mio Alpha 2 wristwatch to collect heart rate characteristics during two pollen seasons of hazel, alder and birch in Belgium. Associations between daily allergy burden and heart rate characteristics were estimated using linear mixed effects distributed lag models with a random intercept for individuals and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Analyses included 2497 participant-days of 72 participants. A one-point increase in allergy symptom score was associated with an increase in next-day resting heart rate of 0.08 (95% CI: 0.02–0.15) beats per minute. A one-point increase in mood score was associated with an increase in same-day sample entropy of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.34–1.26) × 10−2. No associations were found between allergy symptoms and heart rate sample entropy, nor between mood and resting heart rate. Conclusion: Daily repeated measurements with a wearable telemonitoring system revealed that the daily allergy burden of adults with allergic rhinitis has systemic effects beyond merely the respiratory system.
- allergic rhinitis
- heart rate