The article introduces the issue of the review Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique on the theme of structural competitiveness (RPVE, Vol. XLV, n° 1, 2006). The notion of structural competitiveness is first distinguished in a brief way from the notion of price competitiveness. Then an outline of the contributions is given. The article ends up by echoing very briefly the Belgian socio-political topicality as regards competitiveness.