Combined effects of herbicides on biomarkers reflecting immune-endocrine interactions in goldfish. Immune and antioxidant effects

Fatima Masroor, Robert Mandiki, Jessica Douxfils, F. Silvestre, P. Coppe, P. Kestemont

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to a mixture of herbicides, namely atrazine, simazine, diuron, and isoproturon (ASDI) at a cumulative concentration of 50 μg/l for 12 weeks. Control fish and exposed fish were sampled at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exposure to observe the combined impact of herbicides on non-specific and specific mechanisms of immunity and antioxidant defenses. The antioxidant defenses were evaluated in haemopoietic organs and liver. ASDI-induced stress was reflected as a significant induction of superoxide (O{radical dot}) production in phagocytic cells of head kidney and spleen. In addition, plasma lysozyme activity was consistently high in the treatment group. Specific immunity was assessed by antibody titre responses following immunization of the fish with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Antibody titre was reduced throughout the period of observation in ASDI-treated fish. This reduction was found to be significant at week 4 (p <0.05). Herbicide-exposed fish showed reduced resistance against pathogen invasion but remarkable enhancement in lysozyme activity. The ASDI-induced oxidative stress in spleen, kidney and liver was reflected as a change in the antioxidant enzyme activities in these vital organs of fish. Our data indicate that herbicides at concentrations present in water bodies in Europe cause immune suppression in goldfish.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-167
Number of pages9
JournalAquatic Toxicology
Volume81
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2007

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